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Varieties of Green Business

Industries, Nations and Time

Geoffrey Jones

This book provides rich new empirical evidence on green business as it examines its variation between industries and nations, and over time. It demonstrates the deep historical origins of endeavors to create for-profit businesses that were more responsible and sustainable, but also how these strategies have faced constraints, trade-offs and challenges of legitimacy. Based on extensive interviews and archives from around the world, the book asks why green business succeeds more in some contexts than others, and draws lessons from failure as well as success.
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Index

Geoffrey Jones

Abed, Fazle Hasan 108–9

Accion 107–8

Adams, William 60

agribusiness 42

agriculture. see also farmers

conventional 127

farming techniques 155

fertilizers, production of 38

usage 45

waste “recycling” systems 30

Albet I Noya, Josep Maria 160

Allgemeine Müllverwertungs-Gesellschaft 47

Alnatura 133

Amoco 70, 71, 74, 75

animal carcasses 29

animal husbandry 15

anthroposophy 95–6, 99, 104, 112, 122, 126, 137, 253

Anthropocene 19

anti-Semitism 49, 50, 233

appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC) 158

Applied Solar Energy (ASE) 74

ARCO. see Atlantic Richfield Oil Company (ARCO)

ARCO Solar 71

Argentina, national parks in 229, 235, 239

Arizona conference 64

ASE. see Applied Solar Energy (ASE)

Association for Nonprofit Waste Recovery 47

Atlantic Richfield Oil Company (ARCO) 69

atmospheric carbon dioxide 238

Australia 64, 81, 134, 154, 159, 164, 167

Austrian wine 128

Azteca, Banco 110, 111

Bailey, William J. 59

Bajaj, Jamnalal 11, 252

BAMAG 35–6

Bangladesh 11, 93, 94, 106, 108, 110–12

Bangladesh Rehabilitation Assistance Committee (BRAC) 93–5, 108–9, 112

Bank Dagang Bali (BDB) 105–6

Bank Pasar Umum (BPU) 105

Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) 106

banks 15, 20, 95–100, 104–6, 112, 196

Bansal, Sanjay 177

Barclays Bank of Kenya 109

Barkhoff, Wilhelm Ernst 96

Barton, Dominic 17

Bauhaus movement 62

B-Corps 245

Belich, James 141

beliefs, religious 12

Bell Laboratories 63–4

Benjumea, Felipe 80

Berle, Adolphe 6

Berlin. see also Germany

collection ventures 42–3

dumping grounds 32

dust-free collection 31

dust-free service 34

waste disposal in 35

Berliner Müllabfuhr AG (BEMAG) 33, 34, 36, 43

Berlin garbage 37

Berman, Elliot 68–9, 84, 253

Bien, Amos 203, 212–13

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 16

bio-climatic architecture 63

biocosmology 72

biodiversity 197–9, 239

Costa Rica benefits from 21

loss 239

biodynamic certification 127, 157, 161–3, 170, 174–5

Biodynamic Farmers and Gardening Association 126–7

biodynamic winemaking methods 158–63, 179, 177, 181

biodynamic wines 155, 157,162, 179, 181

BioGro standard (New Zealand) 127, 130, 131, 136, 137

biological diversity 232

birdwatchers 212–13

Birla, G.D. 11

Bodenkulturmatte 37

Boerner, Franz 37–8

Bolivia 41

Bonetti, Paul 172

Bonterra wine 163, 165

Bowen, Howard 13, 18

Boza, Mario 200

Braulio Carrillo national park 199

Brazil 58, 107

British/Britain

dust-free systems 31

exchange rate 98

food production systems 125

homes 81

incineration plants in 35

organic winemaking in 160–1

retailers 130–31

self-build real estate market within 101

solar heating systems 81

solar industry in 80, 81–2

solar space heating system in 81

supermarkets in 169

British Petroleum (BP) 71, 75, 81–2, 83

Brown-Forman Corp 164–5

Brown, Jerry 67, 74

Brundtland Commission report 95

Budapest’s city waste collection 42

Budowski, Tamara 203, 209, 210–11, 219

Building Societies Commission 101

bureaucratic narrowness 33

Burt’s Bees 242

business

ethical responsibility of 7

growth of 8

leaders 11–12

paternalism, traditions of 1

philanthropy 5, 16

responsibilities of 7, 8, 14–15

schools, creation of 5–6

of solar energy (see solar energy)

and waste management in Europe (see waste management)

business responsibility 8–12

business leaders on 13–14

business responsibility in era of modern industrialization 1–4

concepts of 1, 8, 19

depression and aftermath 5–8

discourses on 13

for natural environment 18

and quarterly capitalism 15–18

radical concepts of 12

radical views of 10

to society 17

stakeholder capitalism in postwar decades 12–15

traditions of 5

“buy-to-let” properties 101

“buy-to-renovate-to-let” option 101

Caballero, Rafael Rodríguez 198

Cadbury, George 3, 17, 18

CAG. see Charlottenburger Abfuhrgesellschaft (CAG)

California

property tax 74

trade fairs 139

vineyard acreage in 180

California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF) 171

California Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance’s (CSWA) certification program 164

Calvinist beliefs 2

capitalism 1–2, 6, 12, 17–18, 21, 229

Anglo-Saxon model of 15

ethical 10

financial markets for 20

functions of 9

history of 1

industrial 3

legitimacy of 16

longer-term 17

morality of 2

reinvention of 17

responsibility of 15, 16–17

trustee model of 10, 11

welfare 4

capitalist enterprises 1

carbon sequestration 237

Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) 197–8, 211

Carnegie, Andrew 4–5, 242

Carr, Archie 197–8

Carson, Rachel 137, 202

Carter, President Jimmy 67

Catholic Christianity 2

CCC. see Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC)

CCOF. see California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF)

Celestial Seasonings 178

ceramic semiconductor packages 76

Ceres Wholefoods 136, 137, 139

Certification 63, 123, 127, 131, 132, 137, 140, 142, 155, 156, 158, 161–2, 164, 170–76, 178, 180, 181, 207, 217–18

Certification for Sustainable Tourism (CST) 217–18

beneficiaries of 218

version of 218

certified organic grapes 157, 173–5

CFP. see Compagnie Française des Petroles (CFP)

CGAP. see Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP)

Chacón, Efraín 203, 214

Chadwick, Alan 163

Chalmers, Elizabeth “Lippy” 135, 136

charity, importance of 11

Charlottenburger Abfuhrgesellschaft (CAG) 43, 44, 46–7

Charlottenburg service 48

Chauvet, Jules 158

chemicals 36, 122, 126–7, 155, 163–5, 219, 236, 243

delivery systems 155

synthetic 157–9, 169,177

Chernobyl nuclear power station 82, 141

chiffoniers 39

Chile 59, 165, 231, 233, 235, 246

China 9–10, 85, 93, 122, 177, 178

Chouinard Equipment 236

Chouinard, Yvon 21, 229, 231, 237, 245

accusations of greenwashing 245

birth of 230

green capitalism 237

supply-chain benchmarking 241

Christianity 1–2

Christian values of founders 2

Citigroup 103

Clendenen, Jim 176

Coca-Cola 171

Coles, Carlos 204–5

collection wagons 32

combustible fuels 58

commercial goods and services 13

commercial market 202

Commonsense Organics 137–8

Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT) 69

communities, sustainability of 20

Compagnie Française des Petroles (CFP) 79

composition 37, 38

COMSAT. see Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT)

Concha y Toro 165

Confucianism 9, 10, 253

conservation biology 198

Conservation Land Trust 233, 235

Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP) 111

counterculture movement 161, 201, 202, 207, 210

Control Data Corporation 13

conventional tourism 194, 216

Cook, Roy 160–61

Corcovado National Park 210, 213, 239

corporate culture 10

corporate donations 7

corporate fundraising 7

corporate information, force disclosure of 6–7

corporate philanthropy 7, 13

corporate social responsibility (CSR) 1, 15

conventional 17

corporate profitability and 17

corporations 2, 13, 14, 16

Correa, Enrique 234

Costa Rica

biodiversity 199–200

domestic tourism in 202

economic and environmental benefits to 216

ecotourism in (see ecotourism in Costa Rica)

Expeditions in 1978205–6

Forestry Law in 1969200

Internet service providers 206

lifestyle in 204

park system 200

preserving nature in 198

system of parks and private reserves 206

tourism enterprises 202

Costa Rican Tourism Institute (ICT) 196, 211

Coturri, Tony 161, 163, 176

Country Calendar television program 127

CSR. see corporate social responsibility (CSR)

CST. see Certification for Sustainable Tourism (CST)

Cultura Bank 100

dairy cooperatives, consolidation of 131

dairy farming 141

Damalas, Jim 203, 218–19

Daniels, Farrington 64–5, 84

Danish food market 133–4

Danish organic consumers 133–4

Danish Organic Food Council 131–2

Darjeeling tea 177

Davenport, Will 175

David, Donald K. 12

Decanter World Wine Awards 162

decomposition 38

deep ecology 232

deforestation 233

degradation, waste and 229

Demeter certification 122, 127, 137, 157, 170, 173, 175

Denmark 20, 40, 104, 123, 128, 140

organic food market of 123, 124, 129, 131–2, 133–4, 141, 143

organic wine market of 156

scrap metal business in 40–41

social banking 94, 99–100

distribution channels, creation of 123

Dodd, E. Merrick 7

Dolan, Paul 163–4, 172

Donham, Wallace 6

dust-free waste 29, 31–4

Dutch exchange rate 98

EBS. see Ecology Building Society (EBS)

ecological architecture 18–19

Ecology Building Society (EBS) 100–102, 112

ecology, terminology of 216–17

ecosystem 34

ecotourism in Costa Rica 21, 194–5, 199

“commercial” form of 209

debt crisis 197

deforestation rates 195

domestic beach tourism 195

ecolodges and private reserves 212–16

economic and social outcomes 216–20

emergence of 195

enterprises in 203

entrepreneurial pioneers 201–12

entrepreneurs in 216

environmental protection 197

growth of 194, 253

international surveys 194

national parks 196

natural endowment and institutional foundations 195–7

scientists, NGOs and national parks 197–201

varieties of tourism 196

ECOVIN 170–71, 173

Edaphon’s method 38

Egypt 60–61, 63, 253

Eiichi, Shibusawa 8–9, 17, 20, 252

E. & J. Gallo Winery 164

Ekobanken 100

electrical power 41

electricity 43

distribution, structure of 83

grids, equipment for 80

electrolysis 41

electronic corporations 74–5

Ellis, Paul 101, 102

Emiliana Vineywards 165

employees welfare 3

employment 4

enabling mechanism 102

encroachment 233

Eneas, Aubrey 59, 84

energy

conservation programs 66

generators 82

massive consumers of 61

systems, research on 60

Energy Tax Act 67

Enron 75

entrepreneurial disposal firms 30

entrepreneurial philanthropy 235, 242

entrepreneurial success, cultural basis of 2

entrepreneurs

impact of 21, 229

in organic retailing 142

environmental degradation 21, 229

environmental ecosystems 239

environmental education 217

environmental externalities 239

environmentalism 207, 232

environmentally-minded entrepreneurs 201

environmental problems, awareness of 76

Environmental Protection Agency 69

environmental sustainability 11, 244

Escoffery, Charles 65

“Es-Em” system 34

Esprit 21, 229, 232

Essen de-tinning facility 41

ethical capitalism 10

EU organic wine regulations 170–71, 173–6

EUREP. see Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group (EUREP)

European Commission 99, 173, 175

Europe, biodynamic movement in 137

Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group (EUREP) 130–31

Ewing, Diane 203, 215

Ewing, Jack 203, 215–16

export markets, productivity for 126

Exxon 69, 74

Fair Share Fund 104

Fairtrade certification of tea 178

Fællesforeningen for Danmarks Brugsforeninger (FDP) 131–2

farmers

in New Zealand 125–6, 140

use for urban wastes 30

farm/farming

composted waste for 37

intensification of 126

mechanization on 37

FDP. see Fællesforeningen for Danmarks Brugsforeninger (FDP)

Ferrer, José Figueres 196–7

fertilizers 30, 39, 43

synthetic 36, 156, 176

waste-based 29–30, 36–9

fertilizing value 37

Fields, Archie 202–3

Fiesta Wayfarers Holidays Ltd. 209

financial institution, conventional 93–4, 97

financial instructions 103

Fonda, Jane 74

Fonterra 132, 142

Ford Foundation 66

Forero, Margarita 209–10

for-profit nature tourism 202

for-profit reserve 212

fossil fuels 59, 60

Foundation for Deep Ecology 232, 234

France

organic wine 156–9, 167, 168, 171, 180

solar energy in 74, 79

Francé, Raoul Heinrich 38

Franz Boerner Müllverwertung 38

Frey, Jonathan 163, 172

Frey, Katrina 172

Frey Vineyards 163, 172

Frick, Pierre 157–9, 165, 175

Friedman, Milton 14

Fundación Social 12

GABV. see Global Alliance for Banking on Values (GABV)

Galapagos Islands 64, 194–5

Galleon Group 16

Gandhi, Mohandas 10, 12, 17

economic views of 10

forbade consumption of alcohol 11

ideas of trusteeship 10

independence struggle 11

views on rural self-sufficiency 18

gapponshugi 9

garbage cans 32

Gemeinschaft für Leihen und Schenken (GLS) 94, 96–7

branches for 97

General Electric 13

German Agricultural Society 43

Germany 82

chemicals and pesticides in 122

coal mines 61

collection workers 33

consumers 140–41

dust-free collection 31

incineration plants in 35–7

market for organic wine 156–7, 166–7, 180

municipal governments in 30–31

organic winemakers in 157, 166–7, 170–71

policy for renewables 82

tourists 209, 213

production of organic wine 157, 159, 170–71

Gerson, Kurt 36

Global Alliance for Banking on Values (GABV) 93, 95, 103, 107, 111–12

formation of 93

founding members of 94

global capital markets, demands of 17

global financial crisis 93, 94, 102

globalization 15

global warming 28

awareness of 239

global wine market

uniformity and industrialization in 158–9

consolidation of 164

GLS. see Gemeinschaft für Leihen und Schenken (GLS)

Goldman, Arnold 72

Goldman Sachs 103

Gonzales, Felipe 80

Gore, Al 103

governance of private property 241

Grameen Bank 107, 110

Grameen Group Lending Model 106

Great Depression 6, 8

green banking 18–19

green business. see business

green capitalism 237

green entrepreneurship 229

ecology and Tompkins’ strategy 232–5

entrepreneurial paths 230–31

environmental impact 237–45

green capitalism at Patagonia 236–7

greenwashing 216–17

Grey, Zane 124

Guanacaste tourist region 196

Guinness Peat Group 139

Gumpertz, Simon 48

Hamburger Abfallverwertung (HAV) 48

Hartl, Erich 166

Hartl, Ursula 166

Harvard Business School 6, 12, 14, 16, 17

Harvard University 214

Harvest Soyfoods 135–6

HAV. see Hamburger Abfallverwertung (HAV)

Heinz Company 4

Helios 74, 80

Henry Doubleday Association 127

Henry Ford’s Peace Ship 7–8

Hershey chocolate company 4

Hilton, Conrad 5

hippies 161

“hippy-type” stores 163

Hitler, Adolf 8

Hoffman, Leslie 65

Holdridge, Leslie 198

Holecsol 79

Holland, Richard 217

Honest Tea 177

Horizontes and Marenco 214

household waste

caloric value of 48–9

disposal 48

recycling of 43

sources-separation of 48

Howard, Albert 122

Howard, Andy 161, 169, 175

Hudson, Dayton 13

Hughes Aircraft 71

Hunter, Robert 198

Hutchison, F.W. 62

Ibrahim, Mo 16

ICT. see Costa Rican Tourism Institute (ICT)

IFOAM. see International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM)

Inamori, Kazuo 76–8, 84

incineration 35–7

advocates of 46

critics of 38

selection of 46

incinerator 35

producers 46

income inequality 4, 16

India 10, 11, 15, 16, 108, 122, 176–8

poverty-alleviation methods 108

Indian tea producers 176–8

individualism 2

Indonesia 41, 105

local banking system 106

poverty rate 106

industrial capitalism 28

values of 3

industrial cities 29

industrial farming, growth of 122

industrialization 8, 18, 176–7

industrial paternalism 2–3

Industrial Revolution 2

industrial waste, types of 28

inflation 33

infusion of public capital 34

initial packaging design 163–4

instability 33

institutionalization of economic activity 2

institutionalized salvage 43

intellectualism 72

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences 197

International Chamber of Commerce 8

international diplomacy 7

International Ecotourism Society (TIES) 194, 217

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) 123, 127, 173

international purchasing networks 41

International Rectifier Corporation 65

International Year of Microcredit 110

investment tax 67

Isofoton 80

Israel, solar energy 72, 81, 100

Italian wine 128, 159–60, 167

Italy 39, 58, 74, 79, 94, 154, 156, 159–61, 166, 167, 180

Iwasaki, Yataro 8–9

Jainism 10, 12, 253

Japan

energy policy of 78

modernization of 8, 9

organic products in 168–9, 178

rapid industrialization 76

solar industry 75–8

space program 76

Jian, Zhang 9–10

Jungle Tours 203

Katahdin Woods 242

Kaye, Michael 203, 205–7, 219

Kebbell, Jim 137–8

Kenya 109–10, 194, 210

Kenya Women Finance Trust 109

Kiaora Naturals 135

Kikkoman 168

King, Franklin H. 122

Kitchen garbage 42

Kiwi

Kleppe, Mads 179

Koch, Carl 62, 63

Kramer, Mark 16–17

K-Rep Bank 110

Kuin, Pieter 14

Kyocera Corporation 74, 76, 78

LACSA 196

Lamont, Juliet 136–7, 141

lands

preservation, environmental impact of 239

restoring 239

Lever, William 3

Lewis, John 203,218–19

Lewis, Karen 203, 218–19

Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company 62

Lindmeyer, Joseph 69–70, 253

linen rags 40

Litton, Martin 207

Lodge, Río Colorado 202–3

lobbying 254

Lucas Industries 83

Lutheran beliefs 2

Lynch, Kermit 158, 165–7

Mackinnon, J. B. 242

Majeed, Hakeem Hafiz Abdul 11

Malthus, Thomas 2

management movement 7

Mann, Alfred 65

Manuel Antonio National Park 219

Marenco Biological Station 213

Marks & Spencer 134, 169–70

Maryland Bank 70

materialism 95–6

Mavie 168

McDivitt, Kristine 231

MD. see Mejeriselskabet Danmark (MD)

Mejeriselskabet Danmark (MD) 131

Mercury Provident 97–8

Merkur Cooperative Bank 94, 98–100

Mexico 12, 15, 64, 110

MFI. see microfinance institutions (MFI)

microenterprise 107

microfinance 20, 94–5, 104–13

benefits of 108–11

challenges of 107–8

development of 104–13

in emerging markets 104–13

microfinance institutions (MFI) 95, 104–5, 111

Miranda, Guillermo 213

Mlavsky, Abraham 69

Mobil 69, 74

modern business 18

modern industrialization 10, 20

modernization of Japan 9

Mogensen, Karen 198

Monteverde 199

morality 3

Confucian concepts of 9

Morganstern, Adam 168

Mouchot’s technology 59–60

Munich-Puchheim facility 44

municipal solid waste 38

Naess, Arne 232,

NASA space program 76

National Organic Program (NOP) 171, 175

National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) 171, 172

national park 124, 201

National Physical Laboratory 80

national tourism revenues 217

natural history tours 206

“natural” wine 155

nature tourism 204–5, 208

Naturforscher 39

Nepal 194–5

New Resource Bank 94, 103–4

New Zealand

agricultural exports 127

agricultural producers 128

consumers 140

conventional farmers in 130

dairy cooperatives 132

developments in 132

farmers 125–6, 140

food exports in 130

organic agriculture in 126

organic distributor in 139

organic farming in 127, 129

organic food markets in 124, 132–3

organic food sector 20

organic industries of 123

organic production 132

per capita consumption 123

NGOs. see nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)

nitrogen “cycle” 38

Nobel Peace Prize in 1987197

Noma restaurant 179

nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 18

NOP. see National Organic Program (NOP)

Norris, William C. 13

NOSB. see National Organic Standards Board (NOSB)

Obama, Barack President 242

odors 37

Oduber, Daniel 200

OECD. see Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

oil companies 73

oil prices 58–59, 81

combination of declining 70

oil supplies, security of 65–6

Okelo, Elizabeth Mary 109

old waste collection 31

openness 205

organic agricultural methods 161

organic agriculture 122

organic certification

requirements 175–6

schemes 156

organic claims, implications for 175

organic farming/farmers 38, 157, 171

costs of 159

growth of 20

movement 122–3

in New Zealand 127, 129

principles of 122

organic food 18–20

consumption of 19, 168

distribution of retail sales of 133

market in New Zealand 125

per capita consumption of 123

organic food industry 122–5

agribusiness and policy 127–32

consumer market 132–42

origins of organic agriculture in 125–7

Organic Food Production Act 173

organic kitchen wastes 29, 37

organic movement in California 160

organic producers 142

organic production 127

organic products

consumer preferences for 180

in Japan 168

organic retailing, entrepreneurs in 142

organic supermarkets 169

organic tea, market for 176–8, 181

organic waste 43

proportion of 30

recycling 50

organic wholesalers 134

organic wine 20–21, 96, 128, 154–81, 194, 218, 252–4

acceptance of 179–81

certifications 170–76

consumption 21, 155, 180

distribution 165–70

growing 161

industry 20–21, 154, 156–76

markets for 155–6, 164–70, 179–81

origin of consumer confusion 162, 169–70, 176

pioneers of 165

production, growth of 128

retail and distribution of 162, 165–70

organic winemakers 157–65

obstacle for 157, 159, 161–3

organic winemaking 165

in Britain 156, 160, 171

methods 155–9, 161–5, 171

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 125

Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) 198

Orthodox Christianity 2

ORWINE Project 173

OTS. see Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS)

Ouwens, Kees Daey 79

Pacific beaches of Guanacaste 195

Palmer, Neil 167

Pan-American Highway 195

Papagayo Excursions 204, 211

Papagayo Vagabonds 204

papermakers 40

parabolic solar endeavors 72

Paris Exposition in 18679

Park, Iberá 239

Parsi community 10

passive solar energy 59, 62

Patagonia 230

apparel business 237

environmental accounting standards 243–4

environmental impact of 239–40

environmental initiatives 240

food business 237

longevity of 243

marketing strategy to 236–7

philosophy 242

products 243

self-assessment 240

strategy 243

paternalism 1, 3, 5, 12, 241, 246

Pehrson, Lars 99

pesticides 122, 127, 129, 133, 140, 155–5, 158, 161, 172, 176, 178

philanthropy 4, 197

corporate 13

ideas of 12

traditions of 1

Philips 14, 79

photovoltaic (PV)

production in United States 72–3

solar energy 79

solar manufacturer rankings 74

systems, installation of 80

Photowatt 74, 79–80

Piko Wholefoods 135

Pliego, Ricardo Salinas 110–11

Plain Jane Dress Company 230

Plunkett-Ernle-Erle-Drax, Reginald 81

pollution 37

drivers of 61

prevention 44

popular environmentalism 202

Porter and Kramer 17

Porter, Michael 16–17

Portugal 58, 154

poverty 11, 108–9

Primary Production Select Committee Organic Working Group 129

Prinetti, Roberto Stucchi 160

private capital markets 17

private property, governance of 241

private reserves 212

Producer Board system 128

progressive conversion 131

Project Sunshine 77–8

proper execution 47

proprietary system 35

Protestant work ethic 2

public health 36

public institutions 4

public ownership, substantial share of 33

public sector waste-service providers 28

Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) 67, 73

Pullman, George 4

Pumalín Park 234

Pumalín sanctuary 235

Purefresh Organic division in 1997139

PURPA. see Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA)

PV. see photovoltaic (PV)

Quimby, Roxanne 242

racial discrimination 13

Rainforest Aerial Tram 213

Rainforest Alliance ecotourism project 206–7

Rapanzul 133

Reagan, Ronald President 74

recovery systems 35–6

recycling

clothing 237

of household wastes 43

industry 42

system 44

waste 18–19, 252

Reid, Cecelia 204

Reid, David 204

religion, social values of 1–2

religious beliefs 12

renewable energy 18–19, 77–8

conferences on 79

policy 82

reduced support for 73

Reñihue farm 233

resold scrap materials 44

Reuther, Gisela 96

Revenue Act (1935) 7

rewilding strategies 239

Ridgeway, Rick 236–7

Rijkens, Paul 14–15

Río Savegre Valley 214

roads, construction of 35

Roberts, Bary 203, 207–9

Rockefeller Foundation 5, 64

Rockefeller, John D. 4, 9

Rodale, Jerome 141

Röhrecke, Bruno 37

Roman Catholicism 12

Romanée-Conti wine 162, 168–9

Roosevelt, Franklin D. President 6

Roosevelt, Teddy President 18

Rotterdamm international management conference in 14–15

Ruiz-Tagle, Eduardo Frei 234

rural development 11

rural self-sufficiency 10

Ruth, Mary 203, 204, 219

Ruskin, John 10

salvage systems 35–6

Salzburg plant 38

Sammelkastensystem 32

sanitation 29

Sanyo 74, 78, 83

Savage, Jay 198

scaling 61

scarce resources, usefulness of 48

scavenger firms 39

scavenging 50

Schurig, Arthur 37

scrap

business, importance of 49

collection 40

firms 39

material 39

metals 40, 49

rags 49

Sedlescombe vineyard 160–61

semiconductor industry 68–9

separated wastes 47

sewage 38

sewerage 30

infrastructure 29

sewer systems 30

shareholders 6–8

Sharp 68,74, 76

Shell 74, 83

Shibusawa 12

shared value concept 17

Shiga Yohkaichi Factory 78

ShoreBank 102, 103, 104

Showa Oil 83

Shuman, Frank 58, 60, 84, 253

Siemens 74, 79, 82, 83

Silent Spring (Rachel Carson) 135, 202

single-stream system 45

skepticism 80, 161, 209, 219

small-scale entrepreneurs 39

Smith, Adam 2

Smith, Gus 100–101

smog free car 65

Snake Hill Road (Belmont, MA) 62

social banks/banking 20, 94–100, 102–5, 112

social externalities 239

socialism 3, 12, 13

social problems 13

social programs in local communities 13

social responsibility 10

exponent of 15

social sustainability 244

societal responsibilities, debates on 7

societies, social and moral responsibilities to 6

soft ecotourists 219

soft nature tourists 218

soil

organisms 38

preservation of 38

Soil Association 123, 171, 173

solar cells 68

experimental research on 79

implications for 77

solar collection plant 60–61

solar companies in United States 74

solar distributors 80

solar energy 19, 20, 58–9, 77, 81

emergence of parabolic solar industry 59–61

in Europe 79–83

importance of 58

Japanese solar industry 75–8

market for 67

oil prices 65–7

potential of 65, 66

pumps for agricultural irrigation 59

PV cells and new solar industry 63–5

solar houses 61–3

terrestial market and entry of big business 68–75

uses of 64

US oil company investments in 71

Solar Energy Research Development and Demonstration Act of 197466

Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) 74

Solar Energy Society 64

Solarex 69–70, 71, 74

Solarhart 83

solar house 61

movement 61–2

Solar Power Corporation 68, 70

solar platform, components for 80

solar power

stations 74

use of 60

Solar Power Corporation 68, 71, 75

solar radiation 58

solar systems, private owners of 83

solar tax credits 74

solar technology 70–71

solid waste 30

industry 28

source-separation system 43, 44

South Shore National Bank 102

Spain,

organic winemaking in 156, 160–61, 167

solar energy 58, 80, 83

stakeholder capitalism 11

staubfrei (dust-free) collection 31–4

Staubschutz company 32

Steiner, Rudolf 95–7, 112, 122, 125, 136–7, 157, 159, 164, 177, 253

anthroposophical principles 96

stewardship of objects 29

street cleaning 30

functions 30

vehicles 34

street sweepings 38

Strong, Maurice 208

Student Christian Movement 7

sulfites 155–6, 162, 164, 171–6, 181

use by wine category 174

sustainability 1, 18–19, 200, 229

of communities 20

concept of 104–5

holistic visions of 165

sustainable manufacturing practices 241

sustainably-produced wines 163–4, 169

Sweden, 40, 58, 62, 66, 198

organic beverages and food 124, 129, 131, 133–4, 140

organic wine consumption 155–6, 180, 253

recycling 28, 42

social banking 100

United Nations Conference (1972) 66

Systembolaget 180

Tamura, Yasushi 168–9

tar products 43

Tata, Jamsetji 10

Techbuilt House 62–3

technological changes in paper industry 39

terroir 157–9, 165–6, 180–81

claimed differences in 158–9, 179

theory of giving, George Cadbury’s 3

Thoreau, Henry David 10

three-tiered rating system 217

TIES. see International Ecotourism Society (TIES)

Tikal Tours 208

tin mines, potential exhaustion of 41

Tompkins, Doug 21, 229, 230, 232–3, 254

birth of 230

in Chile 233

ecologism 237

Reñihue farm 233

Tompkins, Kristine McDivitt 21, 231, 234, 235, 254

Tosi, Joseph 198

Tourism Area Life Cycle model 217

Tourism New Zealand 124

traditional beverages 168

traditional Islamic practices 11

traditional retail businesses 236

traditional waste haulers 30

traditional winemaking methods 158

transportation problems 33

trash collection 31

travel business 210

Traverso, Franco 79–80

Triodos Bank 93–5, 97–8, 103–4, 112

Triodos Foundation 98

Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education (CATIE) 197

Tropical Science Center (TSC) 198

Trossen, Rudolf 170–71

trusteeship

ideas of 10

legal concepts of 10

Tyco 69, 77

unani medicines 11

UN Earth Summit 208

United States

business history 4

corporate paternalists 3–4

debates 7

food culture 162

microfinance 108

national parks 201

oil company 69

philanthropy 5

Quakers 199

solar companies in 74

urbanization, rapid acceleration of 30

urban populations 28

urban wastes

farmers’ use for 30

treatment of 37–8

US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 172, 175–6

Van der Ryn, Sim 67

Varadi, Peter 69–70, 253

Verein für Gemeinnützige Abfallverwertung 46–7

Victorian-era tourism 123

Vintage Roots 167–8

Von der Linde, Carl 43, 44, 45, 47

confident predictions 46

Vuil Afvoer Maatschappij (VAM) 37

Waldorf schools 96, 112, 136

Walnut Acres 123

waqf 11

waste management 28–9

alternative systems of 45

Charlottenburger Abfuhrgesellschaft (CAG) 43–50

of composting 37–9

and “dust-free” waste collection 31–4

and municipalization 29–31

rationalization of 31

recycling 43–50

salvage and recycling businesses 41–3

scrap merchants 39–41

seeking profits in incineration 35–7

wastes. see also recycling

agricultural and industrial reuse of 29–30

agricultural use of 45

collection and sorting of 42

collection, “dust-free” 29

and degradation 229

emergence of 29

entrepreneurs, history of 28

household 43, 48

management of 19

“modern” approach to incinerating 36

nature of 28

presorting of 42

“recycling” systems 30

removal 30

separated 47

waste-service providers 30

waste-to-fertilizer industry 39

water provision 30

water purification technology 76

Waters National Monument 242

Wattie Frozen Food Ltd 129

wealth disparities 4

wealth inequality 4, 16

Weber, Max 2

Wechseltonnensystem 32

Wedgwood, Josiah 2–3

Weleda 137

welfare capitalism 2–4

Wessberg, Olaf

Whitlock, Rodnie 137, 141

Whole Foods Market 133, 138, 169, 178

Wille, Chris 217

Wilson, Louis 203, 204

wind energy 19

Windscale nuclear plant 80

winemaking methods 154–5, 158–9, 166

organic 154–5, 158–62, 167, 170, 172–3, 176, 181

Wirtschafts-Genossenschaft Berliner Grundbesitzer (WBG) 31, 33, 43

Women’s World Banking 109

Wood, Marion 137–8

Worn Wear Program 237, 242

Wright, Frank Lloyd 61–3

Yellowstone National Park 123

Yerkes, Bill 70–71, 84

Yosemite National Park 207

Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) 7

Yunus, Mohammed 106–7, 110–11

“yuppie” culture 211

Zamudio, Andrés Azócar 234

Zoroastrian 10, 12

Zweiteilungssystem 48, 50