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Reconciling Copyright with Cumulative Creativity

The Third Paradigm

Giancarlo Frosio

Reconciling Copyright with Cumulative Creativity: The Third Paradigm examines the long history of creativity, from cave art to digital remix, in order to demonstrate a consistent disparity between the traditional cumulative mechanics of creativity and modern copyright policies. Giancarlo Frosio calls for the return of creativity to an inclusive process, so that the first (pre-modern imitative and collaborative model) and second (post-Romantic copyright model) creative paradigms can be reconciled into an emerging third paradigm which would be seen as a networked peer and user-based collaborative model.
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Index

Giancarlo Frosio

ancient Greece

see also Platonic mimēsis

Alexander Romance 84

bookselling in 111

clan society change to tyrannical era 107

community participation in creative process 26

cultural shift to Alexandria after Roman conquest 111

guest-friend 108

literary appropriation in 23–5

literary professionalism 108

patronage in 107

poetry guilds/schools 107

pseudo-Callisthenes 84

scribal publishing model 111

servi literati 111

Sophists 109–10

ancient Rome

appropriation in 29

author’s role in 33–4

authorship in 27

creativity in 34, 113, 114, 31–2, 33, 39

dedications of work 116–17

dominus/amicitia relationship 114–18

education in 37–8

excellence 32–3, 33, 43

extension of mimēsis to Roman authors 34

heroic poetry 88–9

literary credit 30

literary imitation

aemulatio 34, 35, 39

imitation 34–5, 39

interpretation 34

oratio publicata, res libera est 27–8, 32, 178

payments to authors 111–12, 114

plagium/plagiarius 30

right to keep work secret 28–9

scribal publishing model 111, 112

sculpture 35

social stigma attached to commissioning 115

anonymity 40–41

Anon. 44–5, 61, 81

aoidoi 70, 74, 75–6, 106

anonymity of 135

tendency to perfection 103

appropriation

ancient Greece, in 23–5, 26–7

ancient Rome, in 29

cultural see cultural appropriation

Romanticism, in 63–4

transformative 235–6

Aristotle 34, 64–5

Aristotelian mimēsis 61

Arti 141

artist

see also individualism

apprenticeship system 142

/artisan attachment 140, 141

emancipation of 141–2

master 141

public interest in 135

/work distinction 140, 142

artistry

emergence of inventive 145

social stigma of 139–40

attribution 21

auctor/imitator distinction 86

auctoritas

see also authorship

of God 41–3, 46–7, 144

of predecessors 43–4

author

etymology of 49

emerging authority of 130–31

evolving role of 106

ownership as natural right of 162–3

public interest in 135

/scribe, common character of 49

authorship 16–17

see also auctoritas

divine nature of 41–3, 46–7, 144

emergence of 17, 187

expanded rights 103

fan- 281, 282

full development of 187

individual see individualism

lone 67

post-modern reinterpretation 282

pre-copyright 22

seal of Theognis 134–5, 136

battle of the booksellers 170–74, 308

see also France; question of literary property

literary property 170–71

perpetual protection of printing privileges 170, 171

loss of 171–2, 174

theory of social contract 171

Baudrillard, Jean

call for prodigality and abundance 325, 332

consumer society creating artificial scarcity 236, 328, 332

revolution of social relations 326–7

Bible, the 22, 80

bookselling 148

ancient Greece, in 111

battles of the booksellers 28

borrowing 13

see also digital sampling

modern era, in 62, 255–6

tradition 256–7

cantar de gesta 95

see also chanson de geste

case law

Bridgeport Music v Dimension Films 256, 257–8

Campbell v Acuff-Rose 234

Eldred v Ashcroft 224

Fox v Doyal 177

Golan v Holder 196

Grand Upright Music Ltd. v Warner Brothers Records 256

Harper & Row Publishers v Nation Enterprises 225

Hinton v Donaldson 164, 165, 178–9, 181

Infopaq International A/S v Danske Dagblades Forening 218, 258

Lenz v Universal Music 299

Millar v Taylor 164

Newton v Diamond 236

Paramount v Axenar 290–91

Ringgold v Black Entertainment Television 224–5

Salinger v Colting 232

Sony Corp of America v Universal Studios 177, 239

Twentieth Century Music corp. v Aiken 177

Universal v Corley 194–5

Walt Disney v Air Pirates 234

Warner Bros v AVELA 228–9

Warner Bros v RDR Books 229

censorship 248–51

cento 36

Centones Virgilianes 36

centonism as game 37

educational use 38

rules for creating cento poetry 36–7

chanson d’ geste 22, 81, 83

93–5

Chanson d’Aspremont 93

Chanson d’Roland 81, 82, 92, 102, 374

adaptation of 93

development and re-elaboration of 93–4

heritage of 95–6

prose adaptation of 94

translation of 93

common patterns in 91–2

cycles of 92–3

geste de Doon de Mayance 93

geste de Garin de Monglane 93, 94

geste du roi 93

Chaucer, Geoffrey

Canterbury Tales 45–6

compilator, as 7, 45, 46, 47

Cicero 33, 42–3

collaboration 23

see also commons; user-generated creativity

collaborative consumption 314

mass 4, 13, 318

creating networked democracy 330

Galaxy Zoo 314

Herbaria@home project 314

Life in a Day 314

networked 4, 49–50, 322

revolution of social relations, as 327–8

SETI@Home project 314

Wiki environments 314, 317

user-generated 315

open culture 318

open source software 317–18

viral spiral 318–19

collective online intelligence 13

collective social authorship 3, 13

commodification 13, 187, 188–9

branding 187

commercial rights expansion 197–8

copyright term extension as tool of 195, 197

creating artificial scarcity 236, 328, 332

creativity, of 3, 105, 187

criticism of 108–109, 110

cultural appropriation in 254–5

cultural standard, as 232

cultural stewardship model 193–4

erosion of fair dealing rights 197, 198

information, of 192

political implications of 252

printing privileges 138

private power over cultural outputs, leading to 250–51

propertization see propertization

Renaissance in see Renaissance

undermining personhood 252

common patterns 89–90

expulsion and return formula 91

modern example of 90–91, 231

commonplace books 62

commons

see also enclosure; open access; propertization

anti-commons, tragedy of 310–11

Creative Commons 317, 333

cultural 310–11

comedic nature of 310

value of 311, 312

economy, value of 319

enclosure of 309

Free Software Foundation 333

intellectual 190–91

natural 191

return of 357–8

Social Science Research Network 317

tragedy of 193,

inaccuracies of 309–10

wealth of networks 315

Wiki environments 314, 317

continuations 102

copying

ancient Greece, in 110–11

Middle Ages, in 36, 39–40

Renaissance, in 56, 58

copyright

see also intellectual property

abolitionism 336

anti-circumvention provisions 210, 212, 296

characters, of 225–6, 229–32

229

removal from public domain 228–9

reuse, and 232–5

unauthorized use of 227–8

Copyright 2.0 285–6, 343–4

clearance culture 221–3

clearing 103

creative destruction of 337

culture 220–21, 225, 233, 236

aggressive litigation 237–9

derivative works, and 296

digitization, and see digitization

distributor-centred, as 189–9

/droit d’auteur 174–5

enforcement see copyright enforcement

enlargement of 103

exception 197, 199

extension see copyright extension

fair use

defence 204, 207, 218, 232, 234, 235–6, 296–7, 299

erosion of 197, 198, 226, 239

feared use fallacy 222, 224, 225

idea/expression dichotomy 234

infringement 228–9, 230

/innovation tension 237–9

law see copyright law

licensing 213–14, 215, 256

fees 216

limiting 180, 181, 197

misuse 236

abuse of rights 237

anti-competitive behaviour 237–8

hold-out power 237

modern policies 22, 67,90

monopoly, as 179–80

orphan works see orphan works

parody exception 227

permissions 256

perpetual common law 162, 164

politics 263

pre- 13, 21–2

principle of exclusivity 199

sound recording/composition distinction 257–8

terms of protection 223–4

derivative works, of 225–6

eternal 225

extended 103, 195, 197

territorial nature of 201

ultimate purpose of 177

value of derivative works 103

copyright enforcement 194, 208, 216, 218–19, 222

bad faith in 298–9

DMCA 209, 297, 298

cease-and-desist 296

invisible handshake 263, 297, 301

notice-and-takedown process 298–9

online strategies

automatic infringement assessment 300–301

filtering 299, 300, 301

proactive monitoring 299–300

secondary liability, using 297–8

copyright extension 195–9, 221, 222, 245, 248, 328–9, 341

black hole, as 195

effects of 263–4

orphan works, and 199–201

clearing rights 200–201, 202

over-extension 334–5

protected subject matter 197–8

retroactive 196, 197

resistance to 332–4, 335

Pirate Party 333

term of protection, of 195–7

barriers to digital archiving 201–202

out of print status, and 201

copyright law 180–81, 374

complexity of 223, 224, 341

constraining freedom of expression 263

cultural standards, and 233–5

empowering mainstream culture 330

freedom of expression/private entitlements tension 233–4, 235, 241–2

/cultural identity conflict 253

Internet and 191–2

obsolete, as 335–7

origins of 188–9

public sphere shaping 175

tool of hegemonic power, as 252

corporate culture

anti-competitive behaviour 237–8, 250

censorship, and 248–51, 302

commodification see commodification

/copyright extension connection 249

cultural conglomerates 251

cultural diversity, and 241–4

cultural homogenization, and 250–51

permission culture, as 303

push marketing 248–9, 281

top-down 249

quality shrinkage, and 249–50

coterie collections 62

creativity

author-centred 148

changing perception of 155–6

collaborative, demise of 156

collective 13

commodification of 3, 105, 187

communal/individual tension 1, 3

cumulative see cumulative creativity

decentralized 264, 315

digital see digital creativity

disenfranchised 264

emergence of 19

education as pivotal factor in 19

transmission of knowledge as pivotal factor in 19

essential nature of 1, 20–21

evolutionary, as 102

free/permission culture tension 303

gift, as see gift

inclusivity in 49–50

individual 67, 156,

reputational value of 179

modern 2

participation, as 22

political influence on 53

pre-copyright 13, 21–2 see also pre-copyright

premodern 1–2, 4

user-generated see user-generated creativity

cultural appropriation 251, 255–6, 260–61

see also identity politics

commodification, in 254–5

copyright as tool of 252

identity groups’ reaction to 261–2

reappropriation 257

reuse after 255

strengthening cultural imperialism 260

cultural conglomerates see corporate culture

cultural diversity

concentration endangering 245–6

homogenizing effect 246, 264

speech hierarchy 246

copyright, and 244–5

corporate culture, and 241–4

cultural homogenization 250–51, 283

countering 264

cultural production

acquisition of private power over 250

court culture 54

cultural propaganda 54

free rider problem 317

private power over 250–51

culture

by-product of corporation ethics, becoming 249–50

corporate-driven see corporate culture

cumulative creativity 21–2

mechanics of 47–8, 49

movement away from 145–6

Western tradition 2

debate over the book, the 166–70

debt economy 4

see also gift exchange

gift exchange model in 4, 106

Decimus Magnus Ausonius 27–8, 36–7

democratization

innovation, of 316

public domain as engine of 311

digital creativity 3, 4, 288

communitarian, as 305

crowd-funding 264, 280, 366–70

Patreon 289–90

Dōjin 289

soft 295

fanfiction see fanfiction

inclusive, as 306

intertextuality in 305

peer production 248, 308

commons-based 317

networked 316, 323

revolution of social relations, as 327–8

restricted by copyright 103

reviving oral-formulaic tradition 303–306

social textuality in 305

user-generated content see user-generated creativity

Digital Enlightenment 264, 268–9, 281

see also Digital Revolution; temple of digital enlightenment

digital environment

community of social trust 4, 319

crowd society 322

economics 327

fan communities 103

file sharing 267, 268, 312

memes 103

LimeWire 223

Internet see Internet

mass collaboration see collaboration

massively multiplayer online role-playing games 295–6

minimizing reproduction and distribution costs 337

need to recalibrate policy agenda for 284–5

networked information economy 268, 315–16, 323

information exchange as goal of 324

innovation and creativity in 317

/propertization conflict 323–4

resurgence of gift exchange in 105

participative culture 103

user-generated content see user-generated creativity

digital humanities 269, 272

digital land grab 192–3, 328

see also commodification

digital mapping 269–70

Digital Renaissance 267, 281

Digital Revolution 211, 305–306, 330, 336, 374

see also Digital Enlightenment

bottom-up, as 341

resistance to 332

resisting the resistance 332–3, 338

shifting power to creators 337–8

digital sampling 1, 103, 259

see also mash-up; remixing

bright line rule 256, 259

EU jurisprudence on 257–8

hip-hop, in 255–7

Legendary K.O. 259

Public Enemy 1, 255–7

reappropriation of cultural identity in 257, 259

sub-cultural niche, relegated to 259

transaction costs 259

digital threat 190, 194–5, 210

darknet 194

debunking 267, 268–9

piracy 266–7

rhetoric of 265, 266

digitization 270

see also digital libraries

Book Rights Registry 206

copyright law constricting 203

cultural heritage, of 269–70

barriers to 199–202

EU, in 202–203

exposing obsolescence of copyright monopoly 335

Google Books project see Google Books project

intermediate digital copying 204–205

divine inspiration 140–41, 145–6

droit d’auteur

/copyright differentiation 174–5

debate 172–4

origins of 188–9

Dürer, Albrecht 137–8, 139

aesthetic Excursus 144–5

economic incentive 22

education as pivotal factor in emergence of creativity 19

Electronic Frontier Foundation 265

emulation 13

enclosure

anti-circumvention provisions 210, 212, 215, 296

commons, of see commons

competition, hindering 216

contractual

click-wrap agreements 214

mass-market licensing 213–14, 215, 216

standard form contracts 214

/technological synergy 214–15

democratic discourse, hindering 216

enhancing centralized information production 246

freedom of expression, hindering 216, 222, 247

intellectual commons, of 190–91

knowledge, of 4, 103, 187

natural commons, of 191

public domain works, of 215–16, 248

enhancing centralized information production 246–7

technological

DMCA 209, 297, 298

digital rights management 209, 210, 211

Information Society Directive 210

permissions layer 210–11

technological protection measures 209, 211–12, 214–16

WIPO Internet Treaties 209, 212

users’ rights and 212–13

Enlightenment, the 62, 154, 327

commitment to circulation of knowledge 175

epic literature 13, 373

characters in 231

epic poetry

evolutionary model of 76–80

life cycle 79

Gilgamesh 79–80, 88, 102

transmission and development of 91

EU

Copyright in the Digital Single Market Draft Directive 300

Council Directive 93/98/EC 196

Council Directive 2012/28/EU 208

Digital Agenda 203

Digital Single Market Strategy 203

Directive 2001/29/EC 212–13, 341

evolution

epic poetry, of 76–7

evolutionary model 78–9

extension of property rights 247, 261

fanfiction

canon of 288

commodification of 292–3

constraint of 291–2

Defense Against the Dark Arts organization 290

developing virtual worlds 293

fangaming 295–6

suppression of 296–7

increasing monetization of 289

Kindle Worlds 289, 292–3

no fair use defence for 291

not copyrightable 290–91

Organization for Transformative works 292

outsider works, as 292

role-play communities 293

fantasia 145

feared uses 217, 219, 341

fallacy 222, 224, 225

feudalism 191

see also enclosure

information feudalism 191, 309

France

see also question of literary property

battle of the booksellers see battle of the booksellers

droit d’auteur debate 172–4

French Decree (1791) 172, 181

social contract 171, 174, 179

gatekeepers

breaking hegemony of 264, 370

declining power of 337–8, 371

defending privileges 328

fear of crowd-funding 369

surrendering revenue streams to 367

genius

absolute 13, 67

divine inspiration, as 155

deconstruction of concept 156

emergence of concept 145

Modern era construction of 154–5

original 134, 136, 142, 155–6

deconstructing myth of 77–8, 159–60

misperception, as 159

Romanticism, in 13, 67

product of faculty of human mind, as 146–7

gift 104

creativity as 3, 104

culture as 104

economy see gift economy

exchange models see gift exchange

knowledge as 104

return 67, 178, 179, 307, 319–24

rhetoric of 177–9, 181, 308

gift economy 3, 4, 114

file sharing in 320–22

goal of 322

/market economy tension 104, 122, 308

never proportionate exchange 322–3

re-emergence of 320, 325

gift exchange 128, 179, 318, 319

see also debt economy

clan society, in 106, 322

hacker communities, in 319–20

literary patronage and 127–8

models 4, 67, 104–105, 307–308

resurgence of 105

open source communities, and 319

reciprocal indebtedness in 106

reputational value in 179

Google 312

Books project 203–208, 239, 240, 269

class action settlement 205–207

fair use defence 204, 207

memory institutions and 203

opt-out mechanism 204

orphan works in 206–207

Usage Guidelines 214

Content ID 300

heroes

common patterns among 89–90

expulsion and return formula 91, 231

cult of 87

Greek heroic poetry, in 88–9

heroic iconography 87

heroic quality 88

metaphorical function 87–8

promoting creativity 90

heroic age, emergence of artists and poets in 106

Homer

see also oral-formulaic tradition

aoidos, as 75–6

archetypal poet, as 77

Homeric epithets 73

Homeric Question 69–70, 71–2

Iliad, the 22, 42, 70, 76, 102, 373–4

Odyssey, the 22, 42, 70, 76, 88–9, 102, 373–4

oral-formulaic tradition, in 73–4

poetic formulary 75, 78

human genome project 269

iconic characters

common patterns in 90

expulsion and return formula 91

copyright and see copyright

mediaeval epics, in 87–92

modern era, in 90

pre-copyright 90

promoting creativity 90

remodelling 102

reuse of 13, 102, 233–4

identity politics 251

see also cultural appropriation

/copyright tension 252, 259

/IP conflict 252–3

imagination 145

imitation 13, 23

see also Platonic mimēsis

antiquity, in 35

demise of 156

Domenichino affair 151–2

Late renaissance debates over 153–4

literary see literary imitation

mediaeval epic literature, in 13

Modern era disdain for 155

poetic, challenge to convention of 151–3

imprisoned characters

individualism 134, 138

see also artist

cult of self 144

emergence of in authorship 134–5, 142–3

ingenium 139

disciplina, and 146

innate mental disposition, as 156

intellectual production, in 135–6, 146

great masters as stars 143–4

possessive 187–8

reductio ad unum 136

process of appropriation within 136–7

use of personal marks 143

innovation

artistic 52

Charter for Innovation, Creativity and Access to Knowledge 316–17

/copyright tension 237–9

intellectual property

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 252

imposing alien cultural and legal paradigm 252–3

Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement 340

Committee on Intellectual Property Rights and the Emerging Information Infrastructure 336

copyright see copyright

authors’ innate personal rights 169

fair use

defence 204, 207, 218, 234

erosion of 197, 198

feared uses 219, 341

identity politics and see identity politics

monopoly privileges in 198

moral rights 169, 227

orphan works see orphan works

paradox of 188

patents 311

private 174

rhetoric 271

rights 176

censorship, and 244

enforcement 243

expansion of 191, 194

influence on cultural landscape 243–4

public interest, erosion of 198

user 198, 212

trademark law 225

interdisciplinary approach 6

Internet

see also digital environment; digitization

cloud storage 238

copyright law, and 191–2

darknet 194

decentralized nature of 191, 315

digital libraries 202–203, 208, 236–7, 270

erosion of initial open nature 209

Google see Google

informational revolution 248, 267–8

read/write culture, creating 270–71

Internet Archive 270, 351

online marketplace 247–8

P2P platforms 333

peer production 248,

commons-based 317

networked 316, 323

revolution of social relations, as 327–8

reprocessing cultural heritage 271

reversing Great Transformation 320

revolution 315, 328

defying notion of consumer society 329

threat see digital threat

ubiquity of information 270

promoting self-empowerment 271

Web 2.0 revolution 283–4, 285

World Wide Web 312

intersemiotic translation 80–81

invention 139, 145

intellectual/skill differentiation 137

jongleurs 94

Jonson, Ben 62, 63, 147

disdain for booksellers 148–9

on edge between cultural models 149–50

plagiarist, as 147–8

Kant, Immanuel

books as actions of speech 166–7

genius, on 156

institutionalizing author/reader relationship 169

Metaphysics of Morals 168–9

non-proprietary control of communication model 169–70

On the Injustice of Counterfeiting Books 168

originality, on 156

l’art pour l’art 124

literary composition, nature of 165–6

literary professionalism 108, 151

literary property see battle of the booksellers; see debate over the book; see question of literary property

Locke, John 161–3

labour theory of property 161–3

opposition to perpetual copyright 162

Mahābhārata, the 22, 80, 89, 102

manuscript miscellanies 62

market

see also gift exchange

economy 3

/gift economy tension 104, 308

reversing logics of 320–21

exchange 104, 307

value of information 102, 267

mash-up 20, 287

see also digital sampling; remixing

cultural 288

defining feature of 294

vidding 294

mediaeval epics

see also romance literature

Alexander Romances 84–5

authorial anonymity in 81

Beowulf 81, 82

chanson de geste see chanson de geste

dérimeurs 84

El Cid 82, 95

episodic nature of 85

fusion of oral and written traditions in 83–4

heroes see heroes

iconic characters see iconic characters

Kalevala 82

Le Roman de Toute la Chivalerie 85

mouvance 83–4, 85

Nibelungenlied 22, 82, 83, 102

orality in 81–3

rewriting in 84–7

Roman d’Eneas 86

memory institutions

digital libraries 202–203, 350–51

American Memory Project 351

Europeana 208, 351

Google Books see Google Books project

Hathi Trust Digital Library 270, 351

International Music Score Library Project 236–7, 351

Million books Project 351

Online Books Page 270, 351

Project Gutenberg 270, 351

privatization of 203, 207–208, 247

Michelangelo 51

‘Divine’ 144

Middle Ages

see also cento

anonymity in 44–5

authorship in 49

cento in 36, 38

copying and imitation during 36, 39–40

Imitatio Virgilii 38

creativity during

attitude to 40, 49

cumulative mechanics of 47–9

goal of 49

inclusive medium, as 49

property of God, as 41–3

epics in see mediaeval epics

gift exchange in 119, 120–21

book distribution 121

makers of books

auctor 45, 47

commentator 45, 47

compilator 45, 47

overlapping roles of 47

scriptor 45, 47

poetic versification in manuscript tradition 47–8

rewriting during

Anon 40–41

auctoritas 43–4

romance literature see romance literature

scientia donum est, unde vendi non potest 119, 120, 307

social authorship 41

text, importance of during 44

universities 119–20

open access to intellectual resources 120

pecia system 120

Midnight in Paris (2011) 5, 217–18

mimetic nature of human learning 64–5

modern era

see also Romanticism

early

borrowing in 62

plagiarism in 60–64

intellectual works born perfect 103

new conceptualization of art in 154

originality monopolizing creative process 33

preventive approval 103

monopoly

anti- 163, 164, 175, 179–80, 187

originality as 33

motivational drivers, primitive 17

natural rights/utilitarian theories comparison 176 162–3

neomania 153

new political economy 313

open access 120, 317

see also commons

A2K Movement 333, 345–6

Backfeed 319

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities 348

Budapest Open Access Initiative 348

Consolidate Appropriations Act (2008) (US) 349

defence of 118–19, 307

Enspiral 319

file sharing 267, 268, 312

driving secondary markets 321

Innovation and Research Strategy for Growth (UK) 349

Open Access Publishing Movement 333, 347, 348–9

Open Knowledge Environments 350–51

open source software 317–18

role of universities in 350

Sensorica 319

value of 311–12

opposition to new technologies 237–40

oral-derived texts 82–3

oral-formulaic tradition 4, 69, 72–3, 102, 373

see also aoidoi

ancient Greek 70–72

aoidoi 70, 74, 75–6

rhapsodes 70, 74, 106

cumulative and collaborative, as 13

evolution of epic poetry 76–7

grammar of poetry 74

guslari 72

Homer see Homer

learning 74–5

model of creative production 75, 77

poetic formulary 75

preserving cultural knowledge 76

recurring themes in 73, 74

reviving 303–306

singers of tales in 70

Slavic tradition 73

stock characters in 73, 74

original genius see genius

originality

absolute 5, 67

autogenous 63

central property of modern aesthetics, as 156

ephemeral nature of 66

mania for in Mannerism 145

Modern era focus on 154–5

monopolizing creative process 33

obsession with in Romanticism 157

original genius see genius

paradox of 65–7

premodern 53

primitive 159–60

Renaissance, during 55–6

orphan works 199–203, 208

barriers to digitizing 199–203

Gowers Review of Intellectual Property 200

increased interest in 200–201

managing risk and liability over 200

solving problem of 352

Extended Collective Licenses 353–4

US Copyright Office report on 202

Vuopala Study 200

ownership as natural right of author 162–3

patronage 50–51, 53, 104–105

Académie Française 132

ancient Greece, in 107–108

aristocratic 129, 264

changing attitudes to 130–33

collaborative exchange in 52, 55

companies 129

competition to provide 123

consumption, as 122

continuum of 264

corporate 13, 264

decadent 131–2

dynamic cultural force, as 130

etymology 115

institutional 132

literary 129

benefits of 129–30

evolution of 116–17

gifts, and 127–8

gratification 129

middlemen 51

official 129

patrons as makers 52

political ideology and 53–4

pre-copyright 13

Renaissance 50–51, 53

collaborative exchange in 52

middlemen 51

patrons as makers 52

political ideology and 53

princely 122

public 122, 124

royal 128–9, 132

state 131, 132, 264

user 13, 264

plagiarism 2, 13, 23

accusations of 63–4, 156–7

demise of 156

early modern era, in 60–64

first use of plagiarius 30

public action against 150

Romantic era, in 63–4,

sanctioned 3

theft, as 155

Plato 42, 110

Platonic mimēsis 34, 61

see also ancient Greece

influence of 23

literary appropriation 23–5

attitudes towards 26–7

oratorial appropriation 25

roots of 26

Plesner, Nadia 241–2, 243

poetry 52–3

cento see cento

epic see epic poetry

grammar of 74

heroic 88–9

occasional verse 53

poetic versification 47–8

social dimension 106–107

popular culture

pre-copyright

authorship 22

creative mechanics 13, 21–2

flourishing of popular literary culture 22

iconic characters 90

patronage 13

prehistoric art

cave paintings 15–16

Raphael’s theory of 18

symbolism of 18–19

collaborative nature of 20, 105–106

hunting-magic theories 17

motivational drivers 17

mysticism 17

possible drivers of 19–20

Venus of Hohle Fels 15

professionalization of popular culture 281

property

alieni abstinentia principle 162

intellectual see intellectual property

rights as desirable tool 193

propertization 187, 188–9, 190, 194, 309

see also commodification

erosion of fair dealing rights 197, 198

intellectual property, of 161–2

IP rhetoric hiding cost of 271

reducing public domain effect 311

resistance to 180

public and communal nature of knowledge 176

public domain 49, 354–9

books 196–7

conservancy model 355

COMMUNIA 357, 359

cultural environmentalism 356–7

definition of 354–5

discourse of 354, 356–7

effect 311

emergence of public sphere reinforcing 175–6

enclosure of see enclosure

engine of democratization, as 311

erosion of 247

digital 209

European Thematic Network on the Digital Public Domain 357

exceptions to rights in 198

legal confirmation of 165

mass-market licensing eroding 213–14, 215

metaphorical public forum, as 246

privatization of 246–7

project 355–6, 357

recognition of 354, 355

removal of characters from 228

public sphere 178–9, 187

copyright law, and 175

emergence of 175–6

literary property, shaping 174–5

publishing

advent of print 126–7, 331–2

ain falsch 139

changing attitudes towards patronage 130–31

commercial 131

monopolistic rights in 189

pre-print practices 48–9

printing privileges 138–9

scribal model 111–12

serial crisis 347–8

Pupi theatre 94

question of literary property, the 161, 163–4

see also Statute of Anne

anti-monopolistic concerns 163, 164, 175

confirmation of public domain 165

France, in see battle of the booksellers

Germany, in see debate over the book

legal battles over 164

nature of literary composition 165–6

perpetual common law copyright 162, 164–5

public domain 165

public sphere shaping 174–7

rhetoric of the gift shaping 177–8

Stationers’ Company, the 164

Qur’an, the 22, 80

Rāmāyana, the 22, 80, 89

read-only

culture 301

technologies 281

recombination 13

reductio ad unum 136

process of appropriation within 136–7

remanier de genie 92

remixing 13

see also digital sampling; mash-up

attack on mainstream cultural paradigm, as 287

communitarian, as 287

core of digital creative process, at 286

emphasis on appropriation and reuse 287

revolutionary language, as 286

sampladelia artists 287

Renaissance 2, 374

see also patronage

advent of print 126–7

alterations to paintings 59

artistic innovation 52

artists as artisans 141

bottega 54–7

copying in 56, 58–9

retouching in 56

retrahere 57

similitudine 57

commissions 122–3

competitions for 123

freedom from 125

commodification of creativity 124–6, 187

advertising 126

art fairs 126

artists’ control of works 125–6

connoisseurship of art 124

changing status of artist 125

poligrafo 126–7

court ballet 52

creativity as idealistic public gift 122

dedications 128

decreasing reward for 130

di sua mano 50, 55, 56–7

di sua propria mano 57

empire of things 124

gift exchange 122

equalizing 128

individualism 13

mechanics of creativity 55

originality in 55–6

patronage 50–51, 53

companies 129

Medici Sacred Academy 129

scientific conception of art 142

signing of paintings 57

status dissonance in 141

super-artists 144

reuse 3, 102

after cultural appropriation 255

iconic characters, of 13

rewriting 103

middle ages, during 40–41, 43–4

epic literature 13, 84–7

permanent 84

romance literature, in 85–6

romance literature

see also mediaeval epics; middle ages

Arthurian 96–102

continuators of 101

Lancelot as central character 98

mouvance 102

Perceval 98–9, 374

Roman de Brut 97

roots of 96–8

bele conjointure 85–6

characters in 231, 373

common patterns in 91–2

lyric insertions in narrative 85

prose romances 100–101

rewriting in 85–6

Roman de la Rose 99

Romanticism 3, 154

absolute genius in 13, 67

failure of ideology 159

accusations of plagiarism in 157–8, 159

authorship 67–8

absolute originality in 67

creativity in

exclusive medium, as 49

excluding the community from creative discourse 158–9

lone authorship 67

obsession with originality 157–8

textual appropriation in 63–4

Saint Columba 118

defence of open access 118–19, 307

Salinger, J.D. 232–3

scribes

/author common character 49

scribal interpolation 47

Shakespeare, William 22, 59

Anon- 61

borrowed feathers 66

communality as defining character of 160–61

plagiarist, as 59–61

skill/invention differentiation 137

social authorship 2

social model of intellectual production 324

social textualization 48

Statute of Anne (1710) 63, 162

see also question of literary property

terms of protection 163, 195

Sturm und Drang 154

techne and phusis 146

temple of digital enlightenment 331

creative ecosystem 339

cumulative and transformative creativity 339

politics of access 338–9, 346–7

A2K 333, 345–6

digital libraries 350–52

OAP 347–50

orphan works 352–4

politics of inclusivity 359–65

apportioning revenues 362–5

appropriation in 361

attribution in 360–61

non-commercial reproductive use 363

redefining exclusivity 359–60

politics of the public domain 339, 354–6

cultural environmentalism 356–7, 358

positive protection in 358–9

rethinking users’ rights 338, 339–45

user-based economic incentives 339

user patronage 365, 366–71

implied social contract in 371

neo-patronage model 366

platforms 367–368, 369

Street Performer Protocol 366

trademark

law 225

monogram as 139

transmission of knowledge as pivotal factor in emergence of creativity 19

UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the diversity of Cultural Expressions 245

United States

Copyright Office report on orphan works 202

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) (1998) 194–5

limited exclusive IP rights 176–7

priority of public interest 177

user-generated creativity 225, 280–81, 308

see also copyright enforcement; digital creativity

blurring author/audience distinction 281

communitarian, as 282–3

convergence culture, promoting 284

creating explosion of data 280

de-commodifying commercial culture 301–302

DeviantArt 284

Facebook 284

fan-authorship 281, 282

fan-subs 284

fan translations 284

fanvids 293–4

Flickr 284

infringing on copyright 301

Instagram 284

machinima 295–6

mass collaboration see collaboration

modding 295–6

modern form of social creativity, as 283

play theory and 283

Prelude to Axanar 279–80, 291, 369

promotion of media content, contributing to 284

read/write culture of 270–71, 281–2, 301

scanlations 284

Second Life 293

trackjacking 294–5

Twitter 284

Web 2.0 revolution and 283–4

YouTube 4, 282–3, 294

Content ID 300

Play contest 284

vidding 294

Vimeo, Copyright Match 300

Wikipedia 4, 283, 314

value

additional 323

crisis 319

gap 266

Virgil (Vergil)

Aeneid, the 22, 29, 42

cento poetry of 37

emulation of Homer’s epics 35

imitator, as 38–9, 86

Western popular culture, backbone of 83