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Improving Performance Appraisal at Work

Evolution and Change

Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu

Compiling extensive research findings with real insights from the business world, this must-read book on performance appraisal explores its evolution from the classic appraisal to its current form, and the methodology behind its progression. Looking forward, Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu emphasize that well-conducted appraisals combine a mixture of classic and current, and are here to stay.
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Index

Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu

360-degree performance appraisal 17071
achievement motivation, employees 221
Adler, S. 78, 108, 142, 173
administration 4
Agile Manifesto 185
The ‘Agile Method’ 1678
Aguinis, H. 190, 204
Akbar, S. 67
Allen, N.J. 112
Anhalt, R.L. 99
Anwar, S. 7
appraiser qualities 94106
appraiser influence variables 1014
The appraiser’s perceptions of the rate 1013
cognitive barriers, evaluation process 97101
evaluation forms, errors 106
experience and expertise 94
Hierarchical distance 1034
observation objectives and context 1045
personal variables 946
personality characteristics 96
Arends, L. 136
Armstrong, M. 176
Aronson, Z.H. 201
Ashauer, S.A. 139
Asmub, B. 138
assessment centers 1734
assimilation effect 989
Atwater, L.E. 74
automated performance appraisal 1745
balanced scorecard (BSC) 1636
Bandura, A. 110
Barankay, I. 141, 184
Baron, A. 176
Bauer, T.N. 7
Beatty, R.W. 73, 84, 154
Behavioral Description Scales (BDS) 589
Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) 546, 101
Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS) 568, 100, 169
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) 5054, 89, 100
Bernardin, H.J. 10, 73, 84, 150, 154
Blanz, F. 47
Borman, W.C. 5, 41, 60, 152, 153
Bowen, D.E. 5, 83, 204, 215
Bowers, C. 130
Brett, J.F. 74
Brockner, J. 139
Buckley, A.R. 95
Budhwar, P. 67
Budworth, M.H. 169
business perspective, debate abolishing vs. maintaining PA 1839
calibration 173
Campbell, J.D. 168
Campbell, J.P. 4, 133
Cannon-Bowers, J.A. 130
Cappelli, P. 65, 12830, 167, 168, 183, 1847, 20912
Caputo, P. 40, 73
Cardy, R.L. 73
Carlyle, J. 84
Cawley, B.D. 73
Cherniak-Hai, L. 123
Christian, M.S. 137
classical PAS, alternatives to 16061
Cleveland, J.N. 12, 24, 73, 79, 82, 86, 90, 98, 102, 109, 110, 113, 114, 120, 122, 141, 156, 175, 218
coaching 168
cognitive barriers, evaluation process 97101
cognitive modeling 1556
collaborative tasks 131
collectivism 124
Colquitt, J.A. 130
Combs, J. 194
communication process 176, 177
compensation decisions 21011
complexity level 11819
composite overall criterion 323
Computer Adaptive Rating Scales (CARS) 41, 60
contextual factors phase, of PASs, 678
contextual knowledge 5
contrast effect 99
Cooper, W. 99
cooperative tasks 131
corporate culture 86
Culbertson, S.S. 100, 187
cultural differences, dimensions 1249
culture and attitudes, PA 1279
culture dimensions, PA 1267
certainty/uncertainty 126
collectivism/individualism 126
indulgence/restraint 127
long/short-term orientation 1267
masculine/feminine countries 126
power distance 126
customer feedback method 172
Daft, R. 118, 119
Davis, D.D. 86
day-to-day performance management behavior 213
DeChurch, L.A. 135
decision making
organizational-level decision making 192
declarative knowledge 5, 6
DeNisi, A.S. 67, 78, 84, 85, 125, 128, 136, 137, 151, 176, 190, 191, 1935, 197, 198, 200, 201, 204, 2068, 214, 215, 219, 220
developmental-human phase of PASs, 667
Dickinson, T.L. 86
direct performance 5
distal influences 11217
attitudes toward organization 11213
organizational climate 11314
Djurdjevic, E. 67
Dobbins, G.H. 73
Dorfman, P.W. 139
Douthitt, E.A. 133
Dresner, H. 66
DuBois, C.L.Z. 95
Dweck, C. 141
Dynamism, environment factors 11920
Edwards, J.R. 190
effective leadership 7
effectiveness 73
effectiveness performance formats, indicators 7072
appraiser and ratee responses 7071
evaluation formats, psychometric features 70
effort investment, job 4
Einstein, Albert 223
electronic performance monitoring (EPM) 122
Ellis, A.J. 137
employee standpoint 17
environmental variables 118
Erhard, W. 178
ethnic identification, ratees 95
evaluation process, appraiser’s influence 93106
appraiser qualities 94106
external environment factors 11829
complexity level 11819
cultural differences 1249
dynamism 11920
environmental variables 118
technology 12023
Ezekiel, O. 93
fairness 73
family resemblance principle, cognitive barriers 98
Farr, J.L. 67, 7880, 82, 95, 100
feedback 17
feedback interview 13846
building trust 1423
effects of 1412
improving 1435
negative side to 140
positive resource 13940
quality of 13843
feedforward interview (FFI) 145, 1689
Feldman, J.M. 97, 98
femininity 124
Ferris, G.R. 91, 101
firm-level performance 190205, 208
firm performance 1989
Fletcher, C. 127, 170
Forced-choice Scales (FCS) 467
frame of reference scales (FORS) 5960
frame-of-reference (FOR) training 150, 155
French, J.R. Jr. 24
Fried, Y. 111, 125, 200
Fry, L. 120
functional quality 5
Gabris, G.T. 74
Gale, J. 4, 188, 207
Garfinkel, R.B. 168
Gelbard, R. 123
gender identification 956
Ghiselli, E.E. 47
Goff, M. 106
Goldstein, A.P. 151
Goler, L. 4, 188, 207
Gorman, C.A. 80, 150, 218
Grant, A. 4, 188, 207
Green, S.G. 7
Greenberg, J. 134
group, independent entity 1356
Grubb, T. 141
Gutek, B.A. 96
Hackman, J.R. 221
Haider, N. 7
halo effect 99
Han, K. 196
Henri, J.F. 125
Hesketh, B. 5
hierarchical distance 1034
high-performance work systems (HPWSs) 1936
Hoffman, B.J. 59
Hornsby, J.S. 163
House, R.J. 125
human resource accounting (HRA) method 1667
human resource management (HRM) systems 83, 175, 199
human resources (HR) tool 122
human resource strength (HRS) 83
Huselid, M.A. 193
Hyland, M.M. 133
Ihrke, D.M. 74
Ilgen, D.R. 96
individual and company goals 209
individual appraisal, team context 1347
group, independent entity 1356
individual vs team responses, group 1367
peer appraisal 135
individualism (IDV), culture 124
individual vs team responses, group 1367
indulgence index (IND), culture, 125
Ingalls, E.A. 59, 60
interpersonal conflicts 132
interpersonal relationships 1312
Iqbal, M.Z. 67, 74, 94
Iqbal, N. 7
item response theory (IRT) 60
Ivancevich, J.M. 55
Jackson, S.E. 199
Jako, R.A. 99
Jawahar, I.M. 25, 96
Jensen, M.C. 178
Jiang, K. 196, 199, 200
Joanis, C. 139
job description 17
job, expertise 4
job placement and career path management 2021
managerial pool, building 2021
promotion 20
Johnson, M.K. 94
Judge, T.A. 91
Kane, J.S. 58, 100
Kaplan, R.S. 163
Kay, E. 24
Keeping, L.M. 73
Kendall, L.M. 50
key performance indicators (KPIs) 166
Klein, K.J. 204
Kleingeld, A. 136
Kluger, A.N. 145
Knauft, E.B. 44
Knight, P.A. 99
knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) 194, 195, 215, 220
knowledge sharing (KS) 123
Kopelman, R.E. 139
Koriat, N. 123
Kozlowski, S.W.J. 204
Kwong, J.Y. 104
Landy, F.J. 67, 7880, 82, 95, 100
Latham, G.P. 29, 56, 73, 105, 16872
Lawler, E.E. 58
leader–member exchange (LMX) theory 7
leadership 4
Lee, T.W. 112, 115
legal trouble, avoidance 210
Lepak, D.P. 196
Levinson, H. 160, 163
Levy, P.E. 25, 73, 75
London, M. 6
long-term orientation (LTO), culture 1245
Lord, R.G. 7
Loveland, J. 139
management 4
management-by-objectives (MBO) 74, 1623
Management Study Guide (MSG) 142
manager meetings 173
managerial phase, of PASs, 67
Manifesto for Agile Software Development 167
Manroop, L. 169
Marks, M.A. 131
Marshall, V. 150
masculinity (MAS), culture 124
McClelland, D.C. 221
McDonald, R.A. 152
McNall, L. 74
mechanic organizational structure 87
mechanistic-psychometric phase, of PASs 66
memory and recall 100
Meriac, J.P. 80, 150, 218
Mesmer-Magnus, J.R. 135
Meyer, H.H. 24
Meyer, J.P. 112
Meyer, M. 167
Miles, J.A. 134
Mixed Standard Scales (MSS) 4750
Mohler, C. 141
Moliterno, T.P. 201, 204
Mone, E.M. 6
Moses, L. 168
Motowidlo, S.J. 5
Mount, M.K. 106
multiple criteria 33
multiple evaluation factors 134
Murphy, K.R. 12, 24, 73, 79, 82, 86, 90, 98, 99, 102, 104, 10910, 113, 114, 120, 122, 141, 156, 175, 218
mystery shoppers 1723
Naquin, C.E. 136
narrative appraisals 211
national and corporate cultures 199200
Neal, A. 5
Nieminen, L.R.G. 99
Nieva, V.F. 96
‘nine-box’ matrix 20
Nir, D. 145
Norton, D.P. 163
objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) 174
observation journals 156
Oldham, G.R. 221
O’Leary, R.S. 176
O’Leary, V.E. 96
Orban, J. 84
organic organizational structure 87
organization citizenship behavior (OCB) 219
organization standpoint 18
organizational climate 834
organizational context 1956
organizational culture 846
and appraiser 856
organizational environment factors 82107
evaluation process, appraiser’s influence 93106
influencing appraisal process 8293
organizational climate 834
organizational culture 846
organizational structure 8693
organizational politics 1089
organizational structure 8693
changes in functionality 9092
changing job descriptions 9091
decentralization 90
managers vs. regular employees 912
multinational perspectives 923
organic and mechanic organizational, performance appraisal 879
rater changes 912
Ostroff, C. 83, 215
Peasell, M.J. 137
peer appraisal 135
perceived accuracy 74
Peretz, H. 125, 200
performance 35
components or dimensions 4
definition, firm level 197
performance appraisal 911
absolute performance appraisal methods 4060
appraisal vs. measurement 10
definitions, employee level of 1011
evaluation 13
evaluators’ appraisals vs. actual ratings 11
feedback 12
four-component model 13
job evaluation vs. PA 1415
judgment 12
judgment process 13
methods 12
organizational context 1213
performance appraisal formats, decisions 412
performance management vs PA. 15
performance rating scales/templates 4260
process 1114
rating 12, 13
performance appraisal formats, decisions 412
development of format 412
objectives 41
rating process 42
template utility, appraisers’ perspective 41
weighted rankings and final scores 42
performance appraisals, field 656
new generation of PA formats 656
performance appraisal system (PAS)
absolute performance appraisal methods 4060
appraisers, feedback 1523
appraisers and training 28
approaches to defining criteria 336
biases and distortions 26
career planning 19
challenges 236
clarification of goals 27
composite overall criterion 323
conditions for implementing 2630
conflicting purposes 24
cost 23
downsizing decisions 21
employees, concerns 245
employees’ achievements and incentives 278
employee standpoint 17
evaluators, objections 24
experimental basis 29
feedback, ratees 289
flexible 28
functions of 16
goals, administrative purposes 1922
goals, improving individual performance 1719
incentives allocation (material and non-material) 21
job placement and career path management 2021
lack of sensitivity, situational impact 256
legal conditions 29
legal defensibility, personnel decisions 212
methods, decisions 3163
multiple criteria 33
objective reflection, employees’ performance 27
objectives of 1622
organization standpoint 18
organizational strategy, consistency 27
performance feedback session 223
performance process-oriented approach 356
performance results-oriented approach 34
point of trust 1456
productivity decrease, work overload 25
relative assessment system 3740
reliability 28
sample training workshop 1569
staffing methods, validation 1920
straightforward 28
successful performance evaluation, obstacles 236
training 14950
training methods 1559
training model 1514
training needs, identifying 1819
training program content 1534
training programs presentation 152
work relations between supervisors and employees 22
performance evaluation formats
behaviorally based formats 6970
contextual factors phase, of PASs, 678
developmental-human phase, of PASs, 667
effectiveness of 6481
effectiveness performance formats, indicators 7072
graphical appraisal formats 69
historical review 658
managerial phase, of PASs, 67
mechanistic-psychometric phase, of PASs, 66
methodological improvements, appraisal formats 7881
performance appraisals, field 656
performance improvement phase, of PASs, 68
psychometric qualities, comparison 723
ratees’ attitudes, performance appraisal 735
raters’ attitudes, performance appraisal 758
rating research revival 8081
performance feedback session 223
performance improvement phase, of PASs, 68
performance management (PM) 164, 1912
performance management systems (PMSs) 1758
appraisal system 202
climate for performance 204
content component 2023
employees in process 2023
methodology 1768
necessary conditions for 1967
proposed approach 2014
requirements for 198
strong HR system component 2034
performance process-oriented approach 356
behaviorally based scales 36
trait-based scales 356
performance rating scales/templates
Behavioral Description Scales (BDS) 589
Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) 546
Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS) 568
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) 5054
Computer Adaptive Rating Scales (CARS) 60
Forced-choice Scales (FCS) 467
Frame of Reference Scales (FORS) 5960
Mixed Standard Scales (MSS) 4750
Trait Graphic Rating Scales (GRS) 434
Weighted Checklist Scales (WCLS) 446
performance results-oriented approach 34
performance review panels 173
performance snapshots 213
Perry, E.L. 127
personal variables, appraiser qualities 946
appraisers’ personality characteristics 96
ethnic identification, ratees 95
gender identification 956
self-monitoring 96
personalized performance appraisal direction 21923
Petrini, L. 94
Phillips, J.M. 133
Ployhart, R.E. 201, 204
politics and PA, 10817
Posthuma, R.A. 125, 200
power distance index (PDI), culture 124
Prince, B.S. 109
productivity 3
Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES) 137
project planning and organizing 51
promotion decisions 211
proposed model 200201
prototype proposal 223
proximal influences 11012
performance appraisal uses 11112
self-efficacy 11011
Pulakos, E.D. 68, 95, 176, 201, 204, 206
Pygmalion effect 7
Rabenu, E. 22, 83, 123, 21923
Rabl, T. 199
ratee, appraiser’s perceptions 101
rater motivation 150
rater training 14959
rating format, appraisers 100101
Ray, J. 150
recurrent strategic interviews 138
Reilly, R.R. 201
relative assessment system 3740
forced distribution 378
paired comparison 3940
rank ordering 37
research and application 21723
research and development (R&D) engineers 222
research revival, rating 8081
reverse appraisal 173
Roch, S.G. 40, 41, 73, 75, 95, 100, 149, 150, 155
Roddy, T. 150
Ross, L. 140
Rowatt, W.C. 94
Sackett, P.R. 95
sample training workshop 1569
Sandlund, E. 141
satisfaction 73
Schuler, R.S. 199
Scullen, S.E. 106
Seifert, C.F. 152
self-appraisal 16970
self-discipline 4
self-efficacy 11011
self-monitoring 96
Shankar, O. 93
Shirmeyer, R. 163
Singh, J.P. 150
SMART goals 163, 164
Smircich, L. 85
Smith, B.N. 163
Smith, C.E. 67, 78, 84, 85, 125, 128, 136, 137, 151, 176, 190, 191, 1935, 197, 198, 200, 201, 204, 2068, 214, 215, 219, 220
Smith, D.E. 1513
Smith, P.C. 50
Smith, W.G. 7
socialist egalitarianism 22
Sorcher, M. 151
Stauffer, J.M. 95
Steers, R.M. 112, 115
Stephan, W.G. 139
Sternburgh, A. 40, 73
strategic goals 197
strong HR systems 201
subordinates’ appraisal 173
Subramony, M. 194
succession planning 20
Sumer, H.C. 99
SunOpta Inc. 4
supervisors’ political behavior goals 10910
Tavis, A. 65, 12830, 167, 168, 183, 1847, 20912
team performance appraisal (TPA) 130
team performance evaluation 133
team viability 133
teamwork 193
technical quality 5
technological methods, PA 1745
technology 12023
autonomy in work 1213
change in roles 120
changing supervisor–worker relationships 12021
definition 120
span of control 120
teamwork 123
Thurston, P.W. Jr. 74
traditional appraisal formats 209
traditional PA ratings 1849
trained evaluators 174
training methods 1559
cognitive modeling 1556
frame-of-reference (FOR) training 155
observation journals 156
training program content 1534
training programs presentation 152
discussion group 152
lecture 152
practice with feedback 152
Trait Graphic Rating Scales (GRS) 434, 100
Tynan, R.O. 136
Tziner, A. 8, 10, 66, 68, 72, 75, 10810, 139, 150, 155, 21923
uncertainty avoidance index (UAI), culture 124
uncertainty levels of environments 11920
Van Mierlo, H. 136
Villanova, P. 10, 114, 150
Waldman, D.A. 5, 36
Wallston, B.S. 96
weighted aggregate criterion see composite overall criterion
Weighted Checklist Scales (WCLS) 446
Welch, Jack 186
Wexley, K.N. 56, 150
Wherry, R.J. 46
Wiersma, U. 73
Wiggins, G.P. 145
Wikipedia 176
Wildman, J.L. 207
Williams, J.R. 25, 75
Willis Towers Watson 185
Wilson, K.Y. 95
Woehr, D.J. 95, 100
Wong, K. 104
Wood, R.E. 150
Woodward, J. 120
work performance 315
employee’s resolve and offered rewards 78
factors affecting 59
management and management style 7
organizational climate and culture 67
situational influences 6
technology 56
work team 89
work teams 13037
collaborative tasks 131
conflicts 132
cooperative tasks 131
individual appraisal 1347
interpersonal relationships in 1312
multiple evaluation factors 134
team performance evaluation 133
team viability 133
worker appraisals, customizing 22023
worker characteristics, appraisal 221
workplace, political considerations 10817
distal influences 11217
organizational politics 1089
performance appraisal questionnaires, items 11516
supervisors’ political behavior goals 10910
Yammarino, F.J. 36
Youndt, M.A. 197
Yukl, G.A. 150, 152