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A Duty to Prevent Genocide

Due Diligence Obligations among the P5

John Heieck

This perceptive book analyzes the scope of the duty to prevent genocide of China, France, Russia, the UK, and the US in light of the due diligence standard under conventional, customary, and peremptory international law. It expounds the positive obligations of these five states to act both within and without the Security Council context to prevent or suppress an imminent or ongoing genocide.
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Bibliography

John Heieck

TREATIES

Additional Protocol Relative to Non-Intervention (1936), 188 LNTS 31 (1937).

Charter of the Organization of American States (1948), 119 UNTS 3 (1951).

Charter of the United Nations (1945), 892 UNTS 119 (1945).

Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, ‘Helsinki Final Act’, 1 August 1975.

Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984), 1465 UNTS 85 (1987).

Convention on Duties and Rights of States in the Event of Civil Strife (1928), 134 LNTS 45 (1929; Strengthening of the principles of non-intervention and the self-determination of peoples and measures to guarantee their observance, OEA/Ser.P/II-O.2, AG/Res. 78 (II-O/72), 21.04.1972.

Convention on International Civil Aviation (1944), 15 UNTS 295 (1947) (1944).

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948), 78 UNTS 277 (1951).

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons, Including Diplomatic Agents (1973), 1035 UNTS 107 (1977).

Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (1933), 165 LNTS 19 (1936).

Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel (1994), 2051 UNTS 363 (1999).

Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone (1958), 516 UNTS 205 (1964) (1958).

Declarations and Reservations to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide <http://www.preventgenocide.org/law/convention/reservations/> accessed 06.10.2015.

Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf (1958), 499 UNTS 311 (1964).

International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (1998), 2149 UNTS 256 (2001).

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998), 2187 UNTS 3 (2002).

Statute of the International Court of Justice (1945), 15 UNCIO 355 (1945).

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), 1833 UNTS 3 (1994) (1982).

United Nations Treaty Collection, Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice <https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=I-1&chapter=1&lang=en> accessed 13.02.2016.

United Nations Treaty Collection, Convention on the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide <https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&lang=en> accessed 06.10.2015.

United Nations Treaty Collection, Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf, 29 April 1958 <https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XXI-4&chapter=21&lang=en> accessed 11.04.2018.

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969), 1155 UNTS 331 (1980).

CASES

International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of International Justice

Application of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995 (the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia v. Greece), Judgment of 5 December 2011, I.C.J. Reports 2011, p. 644.

Application for Revision and Interpretation of the Judgment of 24 February 1982 in the Case concerning the Continental Shelf (Tunisia/Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) (Tunisia v. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1985, p. 192 (Separate Opinion of Judge Ruda).

Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Rwanda) (New Application: 2002), Jurisdiction and Admissibility, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2006, p. 6.

Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Rwanda) (New Application: 2002), Jurisdiction and Admissibility, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2006, p. 55. (Dissenting Opinion of Judge Koroma).

Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2005, p. 168.

Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2007, p. 43.

Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)), Preliminary Objections, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 595.

Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)), Provisional Measures, Order of 8 April 1993, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 3.

Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)), Provisional Measures, Order of 13 September 1993, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 325.

Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)), Provisional Measures, Order of 13 September 1993, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 407 (Separate Opinion of Judge Lauterpacht).

Case Concerning Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v. United States of America), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2004, p. 48.

Case Concerning Barcelona Traction, Light, and Power Co., Ltd. (Belgium v. Spain), I.C.J. Reports 1970, p. 3.

Case Concerning Barcelona Traction, Light, and Power Co., Ltd. (Belgium v. Spain), I.C.J. Reports 1970, p. 64 (Separate Opinion of Judge Fitzmaurice).

Case Concerning Barcelona Traction, Light, and Power Co., Ltd. (Belgium v. Spain), I.C.J. Reports 1970, p. 161 (Separate Opinion of Judge Jessup).

Case Concerning Barcelona Traction, Light, and Power Co., Ltd. (Belgium v. Spain), I.C.J. Reports 1970, p. 114 (Separate Opinion of Judge Tanaka).

Case Concerning Elettronica Sicula, S.p.A. (ELSI) (United States v. Italy), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1989, p. 15.

Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities In and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 14.

Case Concerning Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention Arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. United Kingdom), Provisional Measures, Order of 14 April 1992, I.C.J. Reports 1992, p. 3.

Certain Norwegian Loans (France v. Norway), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1957, p. 24.

Continental Shelf (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya/Malta), I.C.J. Reports 1985, pp. 29–30.

Corfu Channel case, Judgment of 9 April 1949, I.C.J. Reports 1949, p. 4.

East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), I.C.J. Reports 1995, p. 90.

Fisheries Jurisdiction Case (UK v. Iceland; Federal Republic of Germany v. Iceland), I.C.J. Reports 1974, p. 3.

Gabčikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1997, p. 7.

Kasikili/Sedudu Island (Botswana/Namibia), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1999, p. 1045.

LaGrand (Germany v. United States of America), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2001, p. 501.

Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 2004, p. 174.

Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South-West Africa) Notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276 (1970), Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1971, p. 16.

Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 226.

Nationality Decrees Issued in Tunis and Morocco, Advisory Opinion, P.C.I.J. Reports 1923, Series B, No. 4, p. 23.

North Sea Continental Shelf (Federal Republic of Germany/Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany/Netherlands), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1969, p. 3.

Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1974, p. 253.

Nuclear Tests (New Zealand v. France), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1974, p. 457.

Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America), Preliminary Objections, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1996 (II), p. 812.

Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2010, p. 14.

Reparation for injuries suffered in the service of the United Nations, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1949, p. 174.

Reservations to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1951, p. 15.

Sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan (Indonesia/Malaysia), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 645.

S.S. ‘Lotus’, (France v. Turkey), Judgment, (1927) P.C.I.J. Series A No. 10, ICGJ 248 (PCIJ 1927) (7.09.1927).

Territorial Dispute (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya/Chad), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1994, p. 21.

United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1980, p. 3.

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

Prosecutor v. Anto Furundžija (ICTY-IT-95-17/1), Judgment of 10 December 1998, Trial Chamber II, 121 I.L.R. (2002).

Prosecutor v. Jelisić (ICTY-IT-95-10-A), Judgment, 5.7.2001.

Prosecutor v. Kambanda (ICTR-97-23-S), Judgment and Sentence, 4.9.1998.

Prosecutor v. Krstić (ICTY-IT-98-33-T), Judgment, 2.8.2001.

Prosecutor v. Milošević (ICTY-IT-02-54-T), Decision on Motion for Judgment of Acquittal, 16.6.2004.

Prosecutor v. Milošević (ICTY-IT-02-54-T), Transcript of Testimony of General Wesley Clark, 16.12.2003.

Prosecutor v. Mladić (ICTY-IT-09-92-T), Judgment, 22.11.2017.

Prosecutor v. Tadić (ICTY-IT-94-1-AR72), Decision on the Defence Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction, 2.10.1995.

Prosecutor v. Tadić (ICTY-IT-94-1-T), Judgment, 7.5.1999.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Juridical Condition and Rights of the Undocumented Migrant, Advisory Opinion, OC-18/3, Inter-Am. Ct. H. R. (Ser. A) No. 18 (17.09.2003).

Velásquez Rodríguez, Ser. C, Case No. 4, Inter-Am. Ct. H. R. 1988.

European Court of Human Rights

App. No. 15318/89, Loizidou v. Turkey, Judgment (preliminary objections), 23.02.1995.

App. No. 15318/89, Loizidou v. Turkey, Judgment (merits), 28.11.1996.

App. Nos. 6780/74 and 6950/75, Cyprus v. Turkey (dec.), 26.05.1975.

Arbitration Awards and Claims Commissions

Alabama Claims Arbitration (1872) 1 Moore Int’l Arbitration 495.

Asian Agricultural Product Ltd. (AAPL) v. Sri Lanka, ICSID Case No.ARB/87/3, 30(3) I.L.M. 577, 608–19 (1991).

Janes (U.S. v. Mex.), 4 R.I.A.A. 82, 86 (1926).

Lake Lanoux (Spain v. Fr.), I.L.R. 100, 123 (1961) (1957).

Massey (U.S. v. Mex.), 4 R.I.A.A. 155, 159 (1927).

Sambiaggo (Italy v. Venez.), 10 R.I.A.A. 499, 509–10 (1903).

Trail Smelter Arbitral Tribunal Decision (1941) 35 AJIL 684, 713–16.

Westland Helicopters v. Arab Organization for Industrialization and Others (International Chamber of Commerce Court of Arbitration), 80 I.L.R. 596 (1989).

Youmans (U.S. v. Mex.), 4 R.I.A.A. 110, 112–14 (1926).

Domestic Cases

Arab Organization for Industrialization and Others v. Westland Helicopters (Court of Justice, Geneva), 80 I.L.R. 622 (1988).

Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Auth. 297 U.S. 288, 347 (1936) (Brandeis, J., concurring).

Westland Helicopters v. Arab Organization for Industrialization and Others (Federal Supreme Court, Switzerland), 80 I.L.R. 652 (1988).

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer 343 U.S. 579 (1952).

Other Cases

Case T-315/01 Yassin Abdullah Kadi v. Council of the European Union and Commission of the European Communities [2005] ECR II-3649.

R (Al-Jedda) v. the Secretary of State of Defence, Court of Appeal, [2006] EWCA Civ 327, 29.3.2006.

UN AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

Security Council Resolutions

Draft Resolution on the crime of genocide, UN Doc. A/BUR/50 (1946).

Draft Security Council Resolution (Syria), UN Doc.S/2011/612 (2011).

Draft Security Council Resolution (Syria), UN Doc.S/2012/277 (2012).

Draft Security Council Resolution (Syria), UN Doc.S/2012/538 (2012).

Security Council Resolution 670 (Iraq), UN Doc.S/RES/670 (1990).

Security Council Resolution 678 (Iraq and Kuwait), UN Doc.S/RES/678 (1990).

Security Council Resolution 819 (Bosnia and Herzegovina), UN Doc.S/RES/819 (1993).

Security Council Resolution 1366, UN Doc.S/RES/1366 (2001).

Security Council Resolution 1674 on ‘Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict’, UN Doc.S/RES/1674 (2006).

Security Council Resolution 1970 (Libya), UN Doc.S/RES/1970 (2011).

Security Council Resolution 1973 (Libya), UN Doc. S/RES/1973 (2011).

Security Council Resolution 1894 on ‘Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict’, UN Doc. S/RES/1894 (2009).

Security Council Resolution 1996, S/RES/1996 (2011).

Security Council Resolution 2098 (Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)), UN Doc.S/RES/2098 (2013).

General Assembly Resolutions

Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and the Protection of their Independence and Sovereignty, General Assembly Resolution 2131 (XX), UN Doc.A/RES/20/2131 (1965).

‘Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations’, UNGA Resolution 2625 (XXV) (1970).

Definition of Aggression, General Assembly Resolution 3314 (XXIX) (1974).

‘Situation of Human Rights in Kosovo’, General Assembly Resolution 50/190, UN Doc.A/RES/50/190 (1996).

‘Situation of Human Rights in Rwanda’, General Assembly Resolution 49/206, UN Doc.A/RES/49/205 (1995).

‘Status of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide’, General Assembly Resolution 40/142, UN Doc.A/RES/40/142 (1985).

‘Status of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide’, General Assembly Resolution 41/147, UN Doc.A/RES/41/147 (1986).

‘Status of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide’, General Assembly Resolution 42/133, UN Doc.A/RES/42/133 (1987).

‘Status of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide’, General Assembly Resolution 43/138, UN Doc.A/RES/43/138 (1988).

‘Status of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide’, General Assembly Resolution 44/158, UN Doc.A/RES/44/158 (1989).

‘Status of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide’, General Assembly Resolution 45/152, UN Doc.A/RES/45/152 (1990).

‘Status of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide’, General Assembly Resolution 47/108, UN Doc.A/RES/47/108 (1993).

The Crime of Genocide, General Assembly Resolution 96(I), UN Doc. A/RES/96(I) (1946).

‘The Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina’, General Assembly Resolution 48/88, UN Doc.A/RES/48/88 (1993).

‘The Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina’, General Assembly Resolution 49/10, UN Doc.A/RES/49/10 (1994).

The Situation in the Syrian Arab Republic, GA Resolution 66/253, UN Doc.A/RES/66/253 (2012).

Uniting for Peace, GA Resolution 377(V)(A), UN Doc.A/RES/377(V) (1950).

World Summit Outcome Document, UN Doc.A/60/L.1 (2005).

Secretary-General Reports

A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, Report of the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, UN Doc.A/59/565 (2004).

A Vital and Enduring Commitment: Implementing the Responsibility to Protect, Report of the Secretary-General, UN Doc. A/69/981–S/2015/500 (2015).

Early Warning, Assessment and the Responsibility to Protect, Report of the Secretary-General, UN Doc.A/64/864 (2010).

Fulfilling Our Collective Responsibility: International Assistance and the Responsibility to Protect, Report of the Secretary-General, UN Doc.A/68/947–S/2014/449 (2014).

Implementing the Responsibility to Protect, Report of the Secretary-General, UN Doc.A/63/677 (2009).

In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All, Report of the Secretary-General, UN Doc.A/59/2005 (2005).

Responsibility to Protect: State Responsibility and Prevention, Report of the Secretary-General, UN Doc.A/67/929–S/2013/399 (2013).

Responsibility to Protect: Timely and Decisive Response, Report of the Secretary-General, UN Doc.A/66/874–S/2012/578 (2012).

The Role of Regional and Sub-regional Arrangements in Implementing the Responsibility to Protect, Report of the Secretary-General, UN Doc. A/65/877–S/2011/393 (2011).

International Law Commission Documents

International Law Commission, Articles on Prevention of Transboundary Harm from Hazardous Activities, in Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of Its Fifty-Third Session 370, U.N. Doc.A/56/10 Supp. No. 10 (2001).

International Law Commission, Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (2001).

International Law Commission, Commentaries, Articles on Prevention of Transboundary Harm from Hazardous Activities, in Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of Its Fifty-Third Session 377, 385, 388, U.N. Doc.A/56/10 Supp. No. 10 (2001).

International Law Commission, Commentaries, Draft Articles on Diplomatic Protection (2006).

International Law Commission, ‘Conclusion on the work of the Study Group on the Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law’, ILCYB (2006), vol. II, pt. 2, at para. 35.

International Law Commission, Draft Articles on Diplomatic Protection (2006).

International Law Commission, Draft Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations (2011).

International Law Commission Yearbook (ILCYB) 1964 (II).

International Law Commission Yearbook (ILCYB) 1966 (II).

International Law Commission Yearbook 1982 (II Part Two), at 56.

Lauterpacht, Law of Treaties: Report by Special Rapporteur, ILCYB 1953(II), 93.

Report of the International Law Commission to the General Assembly, Sixty-fifth Session, Supplement No. 10 (A/68/10) (06.05–07.06.2013; 08.07– 09.08.2013).

Other Documents

69th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations Ministerial Meeting of 25 September 2014, ‘Framing the Veto in the Event of Mass Atrocities’, United Nations Webcast <http://webtv.un.org/meetings-events/other-meetingsevents/watch/framing-the-veto-in-the-event-of-mass-atrocities/3808197266001> accessed 14.10.2014.

Draft Resolution of Costa Rica, Jordan, Liechtenstein, Singapore and Switzerland to the General Assembly, Improving the Working Methods of the Security Council, UN Doc.A/66/L.42 (2012).

General Comment No. 31, Nature of the General Legal Obligation on States Parties to the Covenant, UN Doc.CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.13 (2004).

International Committee for the Red Cross, Commentary on the First Geneva Convention: Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 2nd edn., 2016, art 1.

Koskenniemi, Martti. Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law, Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission, UN Doc.A/CN.4/L.682 (2006).

Lopez Burgos v. Uruguay, Communication No. R.12/52, UN Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/36/40) at 176 (1981).

Nolte, Georg. Special Rapporteur, First Report on Subsequent Agreements and Subsequent Practice in Relation to Treaty Interpretation, UN Doc.A/CN.4/660 (2013).

‘Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Report of the Secretary-General on the Implementation of the Five Point Action Plan and the Activities of the Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide’, UN Doc.E/CN.4/2006/84 (2006).

Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council (RPSC) (1946–1951).

Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council (1959–1963).

Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council (1964–1965).

Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council (1969–1971).

Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council (1975–1980).

Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council (2004–2007).

Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council Supplement (2004–2007). <http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/2004-2007/04-07_04.pdf#page=4> accessed 25.05.2015.

Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs (RP) II.

Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs III.

‘Report of Mr. Paul-Boncour, Rapporteur, on Chapter VIII, Section B’ United Nations Conference on International Organization (San Francisco 25 April–26 June 1945) (10.06.1945) UNCIO XII.

‘Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Sixty-sixth Session (21 February–11 March 2005), Sixty-seventh Session (2–19 August 2005)’, UN Doc.A/60/18.

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, U.N. Doc.A/CONF.151/26/Rev.1, vol. I, 3 (1992).

Statement by United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to the 69th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations Ministerial Meeting of 25 September 2014, ‘Regulating the Veto in the Event of Mass Atrocities’, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) 25.9.2014 <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=15103&LangID=E> accessed 5.12.2014.

United Nations General Assembly ‘Majority required for the Adoption by the General Assembly of Amendments to and Parts of Proposals relating to Important Questions’ (11 September 1950) 5th Session UN Doc.A/1356 (1950).

Whitaker, Benjamin. Revised and Updated Report on the Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 38 U.N. ESCOR Comm. on Human Rights, Subcomm. on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, (Agenda Item 4), 8–9, UN Doc.E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/6 (1985).

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