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Making a 21st Century Constitution

Playing Fair in Modern Democracies

Frank Vibert

Democratic constitutions are increasingly unfit for purpose with governments facing increased pressures from populists and distrust from citizens. The only way to truly solve these problems is through reform. Within this important book, Frank Vibert sets out the key challenges to reform, the ways in which constitutions should be revitalised and provides the standards against which reform should be measured.
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Index

Frank Vibert

Abbott, Andrew 176
acceptability
normative justification of 169
normative virtues of 161
accommodation
Nash equilibrium 16061
normative justification of 15960
passive virtues and conflict management 160
role of 1589
accommodation mode 213
acquiescence 41
acquisition of norms 25960
action situations 1834
actors, in government 379
adaptive bias 64
additional players, in constitutional framework 7, 1213, 143, 147, 201, 214, 249, 276
adoption of constitutions 2523
advisory services 2812
affective perspective taking 160
affiliation 125
agglomeration effect 246
aggressive tactic 87, 88
agnosticism, reasons for 25
Akerlof, George 106
Alesina, Alberto 94
ambiguities
in context 241
of meaning and indeterminate 2412
ambiguity aversion 86
ambiguous problems 1756
disaggregation 178
American constitution 19, 36
Bill of Rights 49
American Founding Fathers 42, 6061
analytical knowledge 1212
Anderson, Elizabeth 139
appropriateness 207
Arab Spring 112
arbitrariness
compounding effect of 190
hierarchical decision taking 188
of powers 1912
Archimedian neutrality 261
aspirations, expressions of 723
assent
conveyance and 4042
and private sphere 4853
assimilation mode 213
associative rationality 125, 174
associative reasoning 92
assurances 117, 118
attention deficit democracy 116
attention directing mechanisms 183
austerity 112
authoritative resolution 1513, 229
blind spots 151, 1578
bounded awareness 156
bounded ethicality 157
emotion-based 156
gatekeeper role of 1545
intergenerational equity 1578
automaticity 203
autonomy of behavior 48
autonomy of judgment 489, 26062, 2734
bargaining democracy 196
Barry, Brian 115
basic norm, validity and 256
Baumgartner, Frank 215
behavioral rationality 121
behavioral reactions 87
defensive thinking 8890
motive to protect 878
behavioral theory 234
Beitz, Charles 250
Belgium 1
benchmarking 167
ambiguities of meaning and indeterminate 2412
consent 1314
and diversity 238
essentially contestable 24041
in financial markets 23940
ill-structured choices 24041
injunctive role 2356
manipulation 243
marketing, problems with 2423
in modern societies 233
moral hazard 243
narrowness and oversupply 2423
in normative choice 240
normative, weaknesses in see normative benchmarking
oversight 249
and reduction of search costs 242
role of rights as 1314, 234
and search costs 2389
social rights 235
variety 2345
wicked and ambiguities in context 241
benign neglect 6972
Bennett, Lance 202
Berger, Ben 116
Bicchieri, Christina 139, 140, 259, 260
Bill of Rights 19, 29, 85, 237
American constitution 49, 65
South African constitution 71, 72
Article 7 237
Article 7 (1) 71
Article 14 43
Article 29 85
binding power of democracy 1556
Binmore, Ken 142, 145
black box 252, 257
blind spots
in democratic politics 151, 1578, 2256
institutional defenses against 26970
intergenerational justice 270
oversight of systemic instability 27071
Blokker, Paul 26
Blomquist, William 232
Bogdanor, Vernon 15
bottom-up processes 99
bounded awareness 156
bounded ethicality 157
bounded rationality 8, 100, 104, 1089
Brennan, Geoffrey 137
Breslin, Beau 29, 147
Brettschneider, Corey 250
Brexit vote 8, 57, 155, 156, 253
Buchanan, James 2021, 25, 50, 103, 105, 151
Bundesrat 28, 58
Bundestag 28
Burke, Edmund 19, 56, 132, 134, 136, 141, 143
Büthe, Tim 215
Camerer, Colin 143
canonical constitution, obsolescence 56
instability 5860
institutional misbehavior 6064
stability 568
unrepresentative policy making 5860
capital requirements, for banking intermediaries 228
Care Quality Commission 281
Carpenter, Daniel 154
chain relationships, and citizen 2812
chains of intermediation 1213, 166, 268
analysis 21718
directness and selection 2278
dispersion and positioning 221
experimentalist democracy 224, 225
feedback and constitutional chain 22831
financial markets 21922
length 21819
National Health Service (NHS) 22021
non-financial markets 220, 222
organization and 910
overstretch of contract 2246
overview 21718
selection and prioritizing 2267
US Financial Fraud Enforcement Task Force 2223
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 16, 117
citizen juries 192
civic constitutionalism 267
civic purpose/good 1012
civic virtue 106
civil society 154
civil society organizations 105, 162
Clinical Commissioning Groups 281
closed systems, Luhmann’s assumption of 127
cognition
group 89
individual 889
cognitive dimension, in constitutional choice 104, 1079
cognitive dissonance 88
Cohen, Geoffrey 202
Colón-Ríos, Joel 232
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 188
common ground 143, 144
common knowledge 1011, 144, 165, 267
communicative theory 196
Comparative Constitutions Project 29
compensation 111, 112
rights as 2545
compromises 2534
concealment 44, 46
conduct of business regulation 228
conferral 189
European Union 41
conflict avoidance 160
conflict management 160
Congleton, Roger 15, 67
consent 40, 134, 167, 2726
assent and conveyance 4042
autonomy of judgment 2734
benchmarking 1314
fairness 2746
identification and 512
legitimacy 1314
and public/private boundary 423
reciprocity 2746
rights 1314, 2723
consociational democracy 153
consociationalism 59, 190
decision rules and 1934
and persuasion 197
weakness of 197
constituent power 41, 257, 264
constitution
adoption of 2523
for democracies 23, 14, 2656
extending 2668
immutability of 26
legitimation of 252
marginalization of 258
agnosticism 25
democracy 256
juridic constitution 267
loss of relevance 28
primacy of politics 27
overarching role of 19
constraints 21
contracts 2021
coordination 212
emotions 234
heterogeneity 23
limitations of contracts 223
normative element 24
reflection and correction 22
and referendums 2824
rights and ethical foundation of 25760
structural 289
ubiquity of 1719
constitution content
bounded rationality 100, 1089
bundle of motivations 1068
civic/public purpose 1012
cognitive dimension 104
goals 100101
motivation see motivation
constitution, definition of 15
constitution making 23
constitutional analysis 3
chains of intermediation 910
different levels of 45
dual processing 9
fairness 67
group affiliations 4
individual behavior 4
key challenges 10
consent to rules of association 1314
democratic politics 1112
need for additional players 1213
problem management 1011
motivation 5
rationality 78
social diversity 56
units of observation and 45
see also explicit rules; tacit coordination
constitutional chain, feedback and 22831
constitutional economics 5, 104, 110
constitutional goals, Portugal 1012
constitutional grounding 143, 144, 1824
constitutional referendum 231, 232
constitutional responses 10, 15
constitutional self-reference 4950
constitutional treatment 6970
constitutionalism 55
constraining democracy 256
constructive model, Rawls’s notion of 1267
consumer champion 221, 225
content-based approach 267
content-based decision making 164, 174, 181, 182, 205, 208, 210
content-lite communication 199, 266
content rationality 8, 1224
context 1056
contingency theory 205
contractarian approach 103
contracts 2021
limitations of 223
and loss aversion 110
overstretch of 2246
conventional wisdom 156
conveyance
assent and 4042
private sphere and 437
privacy and services 44
redefining private 47
voluntary exchange 447
cooperative behavior 132
co-originality 50, 54, 237
‘correlated’ concept of ‘ought’ 2556
critical juncture 211, 214, 269
crony capitalism 39
cross crowding effect 246
crowd sourcing 99
crowding effect 246
cultural distinctions 6
culture 82
Dahl, Robert 25, 59, 69, 71, 132, 153, 182, 193, 259, 260
Davis, John B 107
decisional fairness 141
decision-making environment 108
decision rules
and consociationalism 193
from hierarchical perspective 1934
declarations of rights 1314
deep difference 75
defensive behavior 90
defensive tactic 87, 88
defensive thinking 88
competition to control 90
defensive behavior 90
group cognition 89
individual cognition 889
stereotypes 8990
deliberative democracy 102, 104, 151
DellaVigna, Stefano 202
demand stress 578
policy effectiveness and 5960
democracy 100, 101
constitutions for 23, 14
enhancing or constraining 256
improvement 1614
democratic constitutions and referendums 2824
democratic deficit 101
democratic government systems 12
democratic politics 1112, 22, 90, 92, 109, 228
acceptable improvements 161
and accommodation see accommodation
authoritative resolution see authoritative resolution
benchmarking 167
binding power 1556
chains of intermediation 166
consent 1678
fair play 168
feedback 162
grounding the relationships with 1824
importance of 265
key challenges 1648
models 190
normative choice 167
normative role see normative role, of democratic politics
normative role of 11415
organizational advantages of 163
polarizing effects 156
political parties in 191
political persuasion 164, 165
qualitative analytic rules 164, 1656
rights and legitimacy 1678
role of 1112, 128
serial processing 1623
strength 153
systemic bias of 155
trade-offs in 201
transvaluational role of 1112, 1613
vulnerability 157
weakness of 4, 266, 269
width and span 162
democratic theory 99, 225
diagnostic choices 198, 203
diffusion, and delayering of authority 367
dignity values 146, 140, 167, 237
Directive EU 2015/412, 11 March 2015 278
disaggregation 174
ambiguous problems 179
contestable 178
ill-structured problems 179
indeterminate problems 179
organizing principles for 17982
sufficient structure, provision of 178
time ordering 1778
‘wicked’ problems 1789
discourse model
and distance 192
and persuasion 1967, 202
dispersion, and positioning 221
distance
discourse and 192
hierarchical decision taking 189
distributive fairness 132, 136, 139
distributive justice 135
diversity 82
benchmarking and 238
constitutional implications of 913
cross-cutting distinctions 83
group affiliations 823
intensity 84
separability 834
social see social diversity
types of relationship 83
dominant motivations 106
Downs, Anthony 141, 198
Dryzek, John 170
dual processing 9
dual processing theories 126
challenge of unified models 127
democratic politics, role of 128
Habermas and ‘open’ systems 127
mismatching 1289
organizing the setting 128
Rawls’s constructive model 1267
unified rationality 126
dualism, in decision taking 182
Dworkin, Ronald 51, 52, 73, 127, 138, 140, 237, 257, 26061, 266
Dyzenhaus, David 263
‘ease of fit’ version 88, 213
Easton, David 57, 153, 155
easy assimilation 89
ECJ see European Court of Justice (ECJ)
economics of attention 194
Edelman, Murray 232
egalitarianism 139
ego-centric groups 83
Egypt constitution 59
elementary principle 132
Elster, Jon 105, 176
emotional motivation 107
emotion-based decision taking 156, 157
emotions 234, 31, 107
emotive motivation
fairness 1313
reciprocity
constitutions and playing fair 1427
and relationship values 1412
togetherness see togetherness
emotive politics 11213
enhancing democracy 256
entropic search 215
enumeration 189
epistemic authority 155
epistemic proceduralism 16
equality matching 133, 134, 139
equality of treatment 133, 1379
Germany Article 3 138
South Africa Article 9 138
equilibrium 108, 109, 142, 16061, 164, 176, 187, 204
correlated
and empathy 142
see also additional players; Nash equilibrium
equilibrium selection 143, 145, 233, 234
essential juncture 208, 211
essentially contested problems 1745, 24041
Estlund, David 140
ETFs see exchange traded funds
(ETFs)
ethical foundation, of constitutions 25760
Etzioni, Amitai 47
EU see European Union (EU)
European civilization 132
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 208
European Court of Justice and the
‘Right to be Forgotten’ Case
C-131/12, 13 May 2014 2778
European Union (EU)
agencies 38
Article 7 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights 235
Charter of Fundamental Rights 117
codecision and power sharing in 61
conferral 41
constitutional (treaty) change in 65
goals of 68
institutional capacity 120, 121
qualitative analytic decision taking in 206
treaties and character norms 72
exchange traded funds (ETFs) 239
exclusionary decision rules 18990
exclusive club 2467
experimentalism 224
experimentalist democracy 224, 225
expert bodies 181
explicit rules 1436, 165, 182, 194
expressive norms 71
external skepticism 261
externalities 84
ambiguity reduction 86
cognitive and 86
‘extrinsic’ and ‘intrinsic’ values 85
positive and negative 856
reference points 867
uncertainty reduction 86
extrinsic values 85
fair play 7, 15, 167, 168
fairness 67, 1313
definition 91, 147
equality of treatment 133
imagined communities 132
and reciprocity 133, 1427, 2746
see also togetherness
feedback, and constitutional chain 22831
feeling motivation 107, 131
FFETF see Financial Fraud Enforcement Task Force (FFETF)
filtering process 135
‘final say’ principle 153
financial benchmarks 14
Financial Fraud Enforcement Task Force (FFETF) 2223
financial markets 21922
benchmarks in 14, 23940
supervision in 2289
Fink, Alexander 30
Fiske, Alan 133, 134, 139
focal points 1445
foundational pillar of constitution 35
diffusion
delaying of authority and 367
different actors 379
societal constitutions 3940
founding principles 40
assent and conveyance 4042
consent 40
public/private boundary 423
functional and principled elements 356
private sphere
assent and 4853
conveyance and 437
Founding Fathers of the American system 56
founding moments 253
Freedom in the World report 56
functional reason 153
functionalism 100, 101
Fung, Archon 232
Gallie, Walter 174, 175
gatekeeper role 153, 1545
Gavazza, Alessandro 232
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 114
cultivation in the EU 278
Gentzkow, Matthew 202
German Basic Law, amendments 28
German constitution 36, 73, 132, 204
Article 1 (1) 146
Article 1 (3) 28, 236
Article 3 138
Article 9 (1) 73
Article 10 423
Article 13 (1) 43
Article 20 (1) 28
Article 21 (1) 191
Article 23 204
Article 50 58
Article 51 58
Article 79 (2) 28
Article 79 (3) 28
Basic Rights 73
Preamble of the Basic Law 18
private sphere 423
see also American constitution; South African constitution
Gewirth, Alan 51
Gintis, Herbert 140, 1456
GMOs see genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
goals, constitutional 68, 100101
Goodin, Robert 200
Griswold case 46, 235
grounding, constitutional 143, 144, 1824
group cognition 89
group think 89
Habermas, Jürgen 27, 50, 126, 127, 151
theory of ‘co-originality’ 237
Hamilton, Alexander 49
Hamilton, James 61
Hardin, Russell 21
Hayek, Friedrich 19
Health Watch 281
Health and Wellbeing Boards 282
hegemonic preservation theory 115
heuristics 128, 206
source 129
hierarchical decision taking, institutional participation in 21314
hierarchy 12, 1868
approaches
arbitrariness of powers 1912
consociationalism 1934
decision rules 1934
discourse and distance 192
market model and role of parties 19091
political parties 190
source rationality 1945
problems of 18890
Hofstede, Geert 80
‘hold-out’ problem 197
Honneth, Axel 137
Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority 281
Hume, David 20, 21, 105, 108, 109, 145, 159, 259
hypergoods, notion of 161, 162, 164, 169
IBM, corporate setting of 78
ideal speech situation 202
identification, and prudential considerations 2589
identity 512
identity management 83
ill-structured choices 24041
ill-structured problems 175
disaggregation 179
public policy management 175
imagined communities 132
IMF see International Monetary Fund (IMF)
immigration 209
immutability
of constitutions 26
costs of 66
incentive to narrow rights 244
inclusion of rights, pragmatism and 2525
inclusive clubs 2457
incoherence 173
independent oversight 23031
indeterminate problems
disaggregation 179
public policy management 1767
individual motivation 103
Indonesia’s constitution 69
inequality aversion 14041
injunctive role of rights 2356, 248
instability 93
demand stress and 578
in framework 646
and institutional misbehavior 6064
sources of 567
support stress and 578
and unrepresentative policy making 5860
institutional arrangements 30
institutional capacity 120, 121
institutional choice theory 31
institutional defenses 26971
institutional economics 218, 226
institutional guidance 114
institutional misbehavior, instability
and 6061
adaptive bias 64
cash nexus in electoral politics and business 62
chains of intermediation 64
checks and balances
against collusion 612
against over-dominance 61
complementary relationships 63
institutional misbehavior 623
system relationships 634
institutional participation, in
hierarchical decision taking 21314
interactive knowledge 1212
intergenerational equity 1578
intergenerational justice 270
intergenerational statistics 27980
intergovernmentalism 62
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) 36, 279
2013, Summary for Policy Makers. The Physical Science Basis 279
intermediate problems 1767
internal skepticism 261
international financial crisis of 2008 225
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 36
intrinsic values 85
intuitive theologian 199
IPCC see Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Jay, John 42, 70
John (King of England) 17
Johnson, James 168, 215
Jones, Bryan 184, 185, 215, 231
judgment, autonomy of 489, 26062, 2734
judicial oversight 230
juridic constitution 267
justice as fairness 51, 139, 261
Kalyvas, Andreas 263
Kay, Richard 29
Keane, John 224
Kelly, Paul 74
Kelsen, Hans 159, 252, 2557
Kiser, Larry 15
Knight, Jack 168, 215
Kranton, Rachel 106
Krisch, Nico 15
Kymlicka, Will 79, 94
law and politics, validity and autonomy 2556
legal constitutionalism see civic constitutionalism
legal positivism 262
legitimacy 1314, 237
rights in
autonomy of judgment 26062
and ethical foundation of constitutions 25760
pragmatism and inclusion of 2525
and transcendent 2557
Levinson, Sanford 66
‘liberal-communitarian’ approach 47
LIBOR benchmark 23940, 243
Lijphart, Arend 59, 160
limited government, concept of 1012
Lindblom, Charles 178
Lindenberg, Siegwart 107, 108
linked ecologies 2478
liquidity requirements 228
Lochner case (1905) 44, 45
logic of consequences 204, 2067, 215
loosely coupled systems 174, 17982
looseness 75
losers consent 193
loss aversion 110
Loughlin, Martin 263, 264
Luhmann, Niklas 127
MacCormick, Neil 215, 216
macro oversight, politics and 229
Madison, James 58, 62
Magna Carta 17
Mahoney, James 216
majority voting 18990
manipulation 243, 2478
March, James 1759
marginalization of constitutions 258
market inequalities 136
market model
persuasion and 1956
and role of parties 19091
of togetherness
anonymity and flexibility 135
fairness and 1356
social esteem 1367
market theory 223
Masters, Adrian 231
matching efficiency 241
material insecurity 110, 111
material motivation 107, 10910, 173
material uncertainty, constitutional approaches to 11718
McCrudden, Christopher 150
Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency 281
metacognition 90
Miller, David 74
‘minorities rule’ 69
mixed goods 245
mixed strategies 2445
moderation 105, 106, 108
modern constitutions 1415
monitory democracy 224
moral hazard 243, 2489
motivated information processing 86
motivation
bundle of 1068
constitutional analysis 5
constitutional economics and 5
in constitutional politics 105
context 1056
contracts and loss aversion 110
dominant 106
emotive politics 11213
as framing device 108
group of 103
market 11011
material 107, 10910
multiple 100, 106
normative 11314
problem management 11112
self-interested 104, 105
single 100, 1045, 107
strengths 1034
weakness 103
welfare and compensation 111
multiculturalism 70, 74, 79
multiple streams analysis 178
multivocality 20911, 278
narrow rights 244
narrowness, and oversupply 2423
Nash equilibrium 16061, 169
National Health Service (NHS) 22021
chain relationships and citizen 2812
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 221, 281
negative externalities 856
negativity bias 87
NHS Improvement Authority 281
NICE see National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)
non-financial markets 220, 222
non-market oversight 229
normal/reference transaction 136
normative benchmarking 240
weaknesses in 2434
incentive to narrow rights claims 244
inclusive clubs 2467
linked ecologies 2489
mixed goods 2456
mixed strategies 2445
oversupply 245
risk of manipulation 2478
normative concept 167
rights in 240
and transcendent concept 2567
normative diversity 11314
normative element, in constitutions 24
normative guidance 143, 1456
normative justification
of acceptability 169
of accommodation 15961
normative motivation 107, 11314
role of politics see normative role, of democratic politics
normative objectives 100, 101
normative reason 153
normative role, of democratic politics 11415
authoritative resolution see authoritative resolution
blind spots 151
constitutional rules 152
gatekeeper role 1535
policy making role 154
three concepts of 1513
transformation 152
transvaluational 152, 153
see also democratic politics
Nozick, Robert 19, 135, 136
Obama, Barack 1, 45
Obamacare 446, 209
obsolescence
canonical constitution
instability 5860
institutional misbehavior 6064
stability 568
unrepresentative policy making 5860
foundational constitution
assent and private sphere 4853
founding principles: consent 4043
functional diffusion and 3640
functions and principles 356
private sphere and conveyance 437
purposive constitution
character norms 7073
goals and character 6870
multiculturalism 735
shared setting 768
Olson, Mancur 202
‘open’ systems, Habermass notion of 127
opportunism 163
optimum domain 191
ordering 208
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 239
organization
horizontal axis 39, 40
vertical axis 3940
Ostrom, Elinor 139, 142, 183
Ostrom, Vincent 22
‘overlapping consensus’ 151
over-regulation 209
oversupply 245
narrowness and 2423
parallel processing, advantages of 179, 180
participatory democracy 102
passive virtues 160, 161
path dependency 209
path rules 143, 145
performative knowledge 144
persuasion
choosing process 198
integration 198
political 1112, 164, 165
and politics see politics, persuasion and
process communications 198
Pettit, Philip 102, 137
polarization 12, 24, 129, 200, 269
policy effectiveness, and demand stress 5960
policy experts 181
policy making role 154
political association, principles for 134
political bargaining 188
political communication 204, 206
political discontents 2
political parties
constitutional recognition 191
in democratic politics 191
role of 19091
political persuasion 1112, 1645
politics
communication in 198
and macro oversight 229
persuasion and
consociationalism 197
content-lite communication 199
discourse 1967
market model 1956
source-based model 1978
unresolved challenge 199201
primacy of 27
validity and autonomy 2556
popular consent 253
popular sovereignty 101
populism 24
Portugal, constitution of
Article 1 146
Article 2 102
Article 9 101
Article 18 (1) 236
Articles for social rights 235
goals 1012
positive externalities 856
‘post parliamentary’ politics 224
powers, arbitrariness of 1912
practical reasoning 161, 169
pragmatism, and inclusion of rights 2525
pre-allocation 188
Preamble of the Basic Law, German 18
pre-designation 188
by territory 11920
preliminary ruling procedure 208
prerogative powers 210
presuppositions 256, 257
principal/agent theory 225
principle of consent 1314
principle of generic consistency 51
principles-based regulation 179
priority fixing procedures 179
privacy right 235
private realm 42
‘liberal-communitarian’ approach 47
personal space and 43
private sphere 13, 35, 42, 260, 273
assent and 4853
conveyance and 437
German constitution 423
public concerns and 44
redefining 47
problem management 1011, 108, 11112, 11819, 173
analytical vs. interactive knowledge 1212
behavioral rationality 121
content vs. source rationality 1225
dual processing see dual processing theories
pre-designation by territory 11920
in public policy see public policy management
system capacity 12021
procedural rights 245
Professional Standards Authority 281
proportionality 2089
prosperity 210
prudential considerations, identification and 2589
prudential norms 7071
Public Health England 281
public policy decisions 108
public policy management
ambiguous problems 1756
essentially contested problems 1745
ill-structured problems 175
indeterminate problems 1767
policy making and 178
‘wicked’ problems 175
purchasers of services 281
purposive pillar of constitution 68
character norms 69, 70
aspirations 723
benign neglect 712
expressive 71
prudential 7071
self-regulation 73
constitutional treatment 6970
goals 68
prevailing dichotomies 73
deep differences 745
multiculturalism 74
preferences 75
tightness and looseness 75
shared setting 76
differences in 78
urban setting 768
qualitative analysis
decision taking in the EU 206
logic of consequences 2067
strategies 2056
subsidiarity 206
qualitative analytic path rules 12, 1646, 2078
critical juncture 211
essential junctures 211
institutional participation in hierarchical decision taking 21314
multivocality 20911
panacea 214
positioning 21213
and processing of information 212
proportionality 2089
reversibility 2089
sequencing 208
specification 213
stronger 2689
qualitative analytic procedures 2779
‘query’ theory 208
Rabin, Matthew 13940
Raich case (1965) 45
rational choice theory 7, 104, 1079
rationality 78
associative 125, 174
behavioral 121
bounded 8, 100, 104, 1089
content 8, 1224
source 8, 9, 1225, 1945
unified 126, 127
Rawls, John 20, 21, 5051, 103, 1267, 135, 13740, 151, 256, 261, 266
Raz, Joseph 29, 262, 263
reciprocity 7, 133, 139
defined 149
fairness and 133, 1427, 2746
and relationship values 7, 1412
tacit coordination 1423
and togetherness 13940
reference points 867
referendums 2278, 2712
democratic constitutions and 2824
reliance on 2712
reflective equilibrium 9, 16
reflexivity deficit 230
regime theory 27
regulators of providers and purchasers 281
relationship values, reciprocity in 7, 1412
relationships, variety of 83
reliance on referendums 2712
representative democracy 102
republicanism 102
reversibility 2089
rights 4950, 250, 2723
and circumstances of adoption 2523
as compensation 2545
consent 1314, 2723
of constitutions 25760
declarations of 1314, 52, 923, 233
delinking the roles 2378
and ethical foundation of constitutions 25760
injunctive role 2356, 248
linking the roles 237
in normative choice 240
pragmatism and inclusion of 2525
and reduction of search costs 242
and transcendent concept 2557
two roles of 2338
‘right to be forgotten’ case 208, 2778
right-wing authoritarians 100
Rittel, Horst 175, 177
Rosanvallon, Pierre 39
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich 216
rule-based approach 124
rule-based international order 132
rule-based regulation 179
rules-based behavior 29
Sager, Lawrence 147
satisficing behavior 108
Scheffler, Samuel 148
Schelling, Thomas 145
search costs 233
benchmarking and 2389
reduction of 24042
search markets 14, 273
Segerberg, Alexandria 202
self-identity 51
self-interested motivation 1045
self-regulation 73
self-restraint 105
sequencing 208
sequential processing, advantages of 179, 180
serial processing 1623
shared setting 76
corporate 78
social diversity in London 768
urban 768
sharing fairness, concept of 113, 115, 131, 133, 134, 136
sharing model of togetherness 13540
Shevchenko, Andrei 231
short cut communication 194, 198200
Simon, Herbert 78, 159, 162, 175, 178, 179, 1823, 240
single motivation 100, 1045, 107
Smith, Adam 212, 24, 48, 49, 136, 137, 145, 259
social diversity 56
externalities of 86
in London 768
social esteem 1367
social harmony 113
social identity 94
social influence theory 125
social justice 136, 174
social rights, case of Portugal 235
social solidarity 113
socialization process 136
societal constitutions 3940
socio-centric groups 83
sociological theory 133
Somek, Alexander 39
source-based decision making 182
source-based model 190
persuasion in 1978
source rationality 8, 9, 1225, 1945
South African constitution 289, 71, 137
Article 7 (2) 236
Article 9 (1) 137, 138
Article 9 (3) 29, 132, 138
Article 10 146
Bill of Rights 71
Article 7 237
Article 7 (1) 71
Article 14 43
Article 29 85
Preamble of 289
Spain, Chapter 4 (1) 236
spontaneous order 18, 19
stereotypes 8990
Stigler, George 53
Stone Sweet, Alec 15, 250, 251, 262
strategies, qualitative analysis 2056
strengths, motivation 1034
stronger ‘qualitative’ rules 2689
subsidiarity 204, 206
substantive rights 245
Sunstein, Cass 215, 262
support stress 578
representation and 58
synoptic ideal 155
systemic instability 27071
tacit coordination 1424
Tajfel, Henri 94, 95
Task Force 223
Taylor, Charles 48, 51, 74, 161, 262
temporal diversity 238
Tetlock, Philip 170, 215
TEU see Treaty on European Union (TEU)
Teubner, Gunther 39
TFEU see Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)
Tierney, Stephen 232
tightly coupled systems 17980
tightness 75
time ordering 1778
timely conjuncture 211
togetherness 113, 131
authority model 134
equality of treatment 1379
inequality aversion 14041
market model 1357
reciprocity model 13940
sharing model 135
and weakness 138
see also fairness
top-down processes 99
Town Hall democracy 192
trade-offs
in democratic politics 201
in valuations 207
transcendent concept
and normative 2567
rights and 2557
variants of 256
transformation role 152
transvaluational role 1112, 152, 1616, 204
Treaty on European Union (TEU) 19
Article 2 72, 159
Article 3 68, 118
Article 5 41
Article 5 (3) 204, 206
Article 6 72
Article 6 (1) 236
Article 9 1378
Article 10 128
Article 10 (1) 102
Article 10 (4) 191
Article 11 (4) 102
Article 13 12021, 183
Article 13 (1) 121
Article 14 61
Article 15 (1) 153
Article 17 61
Article 26 (2) 111
Article 48 65
Article 101 (1) 111
Article 119 (1) 111
character norms 71, 72
civic good in 102
market order in 111
material assurance in 118
Preamble and Article 1 132
Treaty on the Functioning of the
European Union (TFEU) 19
Article 2 119
Article 3 119
Article 4 119, 201
Article 5 201
Article 6 201
Article 10 72
Article 352 12021, 128, 183
Title V 120
Trump vote 8, 156
Tullock, Gordon 2021, 25, 105
Tully, James 74, 78, 262
ubiquity of constitutions 1719
‘Ulysses’metaphor 21, 23
uncertainty reduction 86
unconventional monetary policy 177
unified rationality 126, 128
challenges of 127
unrepresentative policy making, instability and
consociationalism 59
demand stress 5960
representation and support stress 58
structuring the policy setting 60
US Financial Fraud Enforcement Task Force (FFETF) 2223
US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) 154
validity, and basic norm 256
Vallone, Robert 203
Vincent-Jones, Peter 232
Voigt, Stefan 31
Waldron, Jeremy 141, 189, 261
Walker, Neil 41
Walzer, Michael 75, 261
weak constitutionalism 232
weakness 103
of consociationalism 197
of democratic politics 4, 266, 269
in normative benchmarking see normative benchmarking
togetherness and 138
Webber, Melvin 175, 177
welfare and compensation 111
Wickard case (1942) 45
‘wicked’ problems 175
disaggregation 1789
World Health Organization (WHO) 239