Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Sports Economics Uncut

Brian Goff

“Sport has the power to change the world.” Sports Economics Uncut expresses this insight from Nelson Mandela, exploring sports as a fascinating mirror of the world and a powerful agent of change. In it, Brian Goff covers subjects ranging from the ebb and flow of racial discrimination, to inequality, law enforcement, managers and risky decisions, club membership, and politics. Much more than merely a review or synthesis, this book extends existing perspectives and explores provocative questions such as: how systematic is racial bias in pro sports today? Is all racial segregation in sports due to racial bias? How much are college athletes really worth, and is league parity really optimal? 
Show Summary Details
You do not have access to this content

Chapter 3: The road from Robinson to Kaepernick

Brian Goff


In 1947 Jackie Robinson broke down a barrier for black baseball players, demolishing a symbol of a segregated society. At the 1968 Olympics, two African American athletes protested racial injustice during the national anthem. Another 40 years later, Colin Kaepernick imitated their protests. Chapter 3 examines the evolution of racial bias in sports and how it both reflected and led to larger societal patterns. It begins with evidence from the explicit barriers in the 1940s, proceeds to more subtle expressions in salaries and playing time, and moves on to evaluate more recent studies of NFL and MLB officiating, utilizing millions of data points. The chapter also looks beyond bias to other factors that produce race-related, but not biased-induced, outcomes. It ends with the question of why feelings are so raw regarding racial issues when so much of the measurable evidence has gone from obvious to microscopic.

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information

or login to access all content.