Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Sports Economics Uncut

Brian Goff

“Sport has the power to change the world.” Sports Economics Uncut expresses this insight from Nelson Mandela, exploring sports as a fascinating mirror of the world and a powerful agent of change. In it, Brian Goff covers subjects ranging from the ebb and flow of racial discrimination, to inequality, law enforcement, managers and risky decisions, club membership, and politics. Much more than merely a review or synthesis, this book extends existing perspectives and explores provocative questions such as: how systematic is racial bias in pro sports today? Is all racial segregation in sports due to racial bias? How much are college athletes really worth, and is league parity really optimal? 
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

References

Brian Goff

Abere, Andrew, Peter Bronsteen, and Kenneth G. Elzinga. “The economics of NASCAR.” In The Oxford Handbook of Sports Economics: The Economics of Sport Volume 1, edited by Leo H. Kahane and Stephen Shmanske, 318–38. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Akerlof, George A. “The market for ‘lemons’: quality uncertainty and the market mechanism.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 84, no. 3 (1970): 488–500.
Alchian, Armen A. and Harold Demsetz. “Production, information costs, and economic organization.” American Economic Review 62, no. 5 (1972): 777–79.
Assael, Shaun and Brett Forrest. “The FBI v. FIFA.” Accessed October 20, 2017. Available at http://www.espn.com/espn/feature/story/_/id/14767250/the-exclusive-story-how-feds-took-fifa.
Atkinson, Giles, Susana Mourato, Stefan Szymanski, and Ece Ozdemiroglu. “Are we willing to pay enough to back the bid?: Valuing the intangible impacts of London’s bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympic Games.” Urban Studies 45, no. 2 (2008): 419–44.
Banerjee, Abhijit and Esther Duflo. Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of The Way to Fight Global Poverty. New York: Public Affairs, 2012.
Becker, Gary S. The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.
Berri, David J. and Martin B. Schmidt. “Competitive balance and attendance: the case of Major League Baseball.” Journal of Sports Economics 2, no. 2 (2001): 145–67.
Berri, David J. and Rob Simmons. “Race and the evaluation of signal callers in the National Football League.” Journal of Sports Economics 10, no. 1 (2009): 23–43.
Berri, David J., Stacey L. Brook, Bernd Frick, Aju J. Fenn, and Roberto Vicente-Mayoral. “The short supply of tall people: competitive imbalance and the National Basketball Association.” Journal of Economic Issues 39, no. 4 (2005): 1029–41.
Borland, Melvin V., Brian L. Goff, and Robert W. Pulsinelli. “College athletics: financial burden or boon?” In Advances in the Economics of Sport 1, edited by Gerald Scully, 215–35. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, 1992.
Boudreaux, Christopher John, Gokhan Karahan, and Morris Coats. “Bend it like FIFA: corruption on and off the pitch.” Managerial Finance 42, no. 9 (2016): 866–78.
Bradbury, John C. The Baseball Economist: The Real Game Exposed. New York: Dutton, 2007.
Bradbury, John C. and Douglas Drinen. “Research notes: the designated hitter, moral hazard, and hit batters new evidence from game-level data.” Journal of Sports Economics 7, no. 3 (2006): 319–29.
Brown, Robert W. “An estimate of the rent generated by a premium college football player.” Economic Inquiry 31, no. 4 (1993): 671–84.
Brown, Robert W. “Measuring cartel rents in the college basketball player recruitment market.” Applied Economics 26, no. 1 (1994): 27–34.
Brown, William O. and Raymond D. Sauer. “Fundamentals or noise? Evidence from the professional basketball betting market.” The Journal of Finance 48, no. 4 (1993): 1193–209.
Bruggink, Thomas H. and James W. Eaton. “Rebuilding attendance in Major League Baseball: the demand for individual games.” In Baseball Economics: Current Research, edited by John Fizel, Elizabeth Gustafson, and Lawrence Hadley, 9–31. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
Buchanan, James M. “An economic theory of clubs.” Economica 32, no. 125 (1965): 1–14.
Carlino, Gerald and N. Edward Coulson. “Compensating differentials and the social benefits of the NFL.” Journal of Urban Economics 56, no. 1 (2004): 25–50.
Carlino, Gerald and N. Edward Coulson. “Compensating differentials and the social benefit of the NFL: reply.” Journal of Urban Economics 60, no. 1 (2006): 132–38.
Carroll, Kathleen A. and Brad R. Humphreys. “Nonprofit decision making and social regulation: the intended and unintended consequences of Title IX.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 43, no. 3 (2000): 359–76.
Chappelet, Jean-Loup. “22 The economics of the IOC.” In Handbook on the Economics of Sport, edited by Wladimer Andreff and Stephan Szymanski, 241–53. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006.
Chiappori, P-A., Steven Levitt, and Timothy Groseclose. “Testing mixedstrategy equilibria when players are heterogeneous: the case of penalty kicks in soccer.” American Economic Review 92, no. 4 (2002): 1138–51
Clark, John S., Artemisia Apostolopoulou, and James M. Gladden. “Real women watch football: gender differences in the consumption of the NFL Super Bowl broadcast.” Journal of Promotion Management 15, no. 1–2 (2009): 165–83.
Clement, Robert C. and Robert E. McCormick. “Coaching team production.” Economic Inquiry 27, no. 2 (1989): 287–304.
Clotfelter, Charles T. Big-time Sports in American Universities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Coates, Dennis and Brad R. Humphreys. “The effect of professional sports on earnings and employment in the services and retail sectors in US cities.” Regional Science and Urban Economics 33, no. 2 (2003): 175–98.
Coates, Dennis, Brad R. Humphreys, and Andrew Zimbalist. “Compensating differentials and the social benefits of the NFL: a comment.” Journal of Urban Economics 60, no. 1 (2006): 124–31.
Corman, Hope and Naci Mocan. “Carrots, sticks, and broken windows.” Journal of Law and Economics 48, no. 1 (2005): 235–66.
Cottle, Rex L. “Economics of the professional golfers’ association tour.” Social Science Quarterly 62, no. 4 (1981): 721–34.
Coyne, Patrick. “The role of the MLBPA in creating the steroid era in Major League Baseball.” Openworks.wooster.edu (2010).
Curry, Jack. “Time to hold all umpires accountable.” New York Times, September 3, 1999.
Curtis, James E. and John W. Loy. “Race/ethnicity and relative centrality of playing positions in team sports.” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 6, no. 1 (1978): 285–313.
Dawson, Peter. “The economics of the Olympics.” In The Oxford Handbook of Sports Economics: The Economics of Sport Volume 1, edited by Leo H. Kahane and Stephen Shmanske, 422–28. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Dawson, Peter, Stephen Dobson, John Goddard, and John Wilson. “Are football referees really biased and inconsistent?: Evidence on the incidence of disciplinary sanction in the English Premier League.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A 170, no. 1 (2007): 231–50.
Dehring, Carolyn A., Craig A. Depken, and Michael R. Ward. “The impact of stadium announcements on residential property values: evidence from a natural experiment in Dallas-Fort Worth.” Contemporary Economic Policy 25, no. 4 (2007): 627–38.
Depken II, Craig A. “Free-agency and the competitiveness of Major League Baseball.” Review of Industrial Organization 14, no. 3 (1999): 205–17.
Depken, Craig A. and Jon M. Ford. “Customer-based discrimination against major league baseball players: additional evidence from All-Star ballots.” The Journal of Socio-Economics 35, no. 6 (2006): 1061–77.
Depken, Craig A. and Dennis P. Wilson. “Wherein lies the benefit of the second referee in the NHL?” Review of Industrial Organization 24, no. 1 (2004): 51–72.
Depken, Craig A. and Dennis P. Wilson. “NCAA enforcement and competitive balance in college football.” Southern Economic Journal 72, no. 4 (2006): 826–45.
DeSchriver, Timothy D. and David K. Stotlar. “An economic analysis of cartel behavior within the NCAA.” Journal of Sport Management 10, no. 4 (1996): 388–400.
Dobson, Stephen and John Goddard. The Economics of Football. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Dohmen, Thomas J. “The influence of social forces: evidence from the behavior of football referees.” Economic Inquiry 46, no. 3 (2008): 411–24.
Dosh, Kristi. Saturday Millionaires: How Winning Football Builds Winning Colleges. Nashville: Turner Publishing, Wiley, 2013.
Eide, Eric and Daraius Irani. “Positional segregation in Major League Baseball: 1961–1990.” In Baseball Economics: Current Research, edited by John Fizel, Elizabeth Gustafson, and Lawrence Hadley, 9–31. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
Entine, Jon. Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We’re Afraid to Talk About it. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.
Epstein, David. The Sports Gene: Inside the Science of Extraordinary Athletic Performance. New York: Penguin, 2014.
Farmer, Amy and Paul Pecorino. “Is the coach paid too much?: Coaching salaries and the NCAA cartel.” Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 19, no. 3 (2010): 841–62.
Fee, C. Edward, Charles J. Hadlock, and Joshua R. Pierce. “Promotions in the internal and external labor market: evidence from professional football coaching careers.” The Journal of Business 79, no. 2 (2006): 821–50.
Fisher, Max. “Why Kenyans make such great runners: a story of genes and cultures.” Accessed October 15, 2017. Available at https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012.
Fleisher, Arthur A., Brian L. Goff, and Robert D. Tollison. The National Collegiate Athletic Association: A Study in Cartel Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Fleisher, Arthur A., William F. Shughart, Robert D. Tollison, and Brian L. Goff. “Crime or punishment?: Enforcement of the NCAA football cartel.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 10, no. 4 (1988): 433–51.
Flynn, Michael A. and Richard J. Gilbert. “The analysis of professional sports leagues as joint ventures.” The Economic Journal 111, no. 469 (2001): 27–46.
Fort, Rodney. “Competitive balance in North American professional sports.” In Handbook of Sports Economics Research, edited by John Fizel, 190–206. Amrock, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2006.
Fort, Rodney and Joel Maxcy. “Competitive balance in sports leagues: an introduction.” Journal of Sports Economics 4, no. 2 (2003): 154–60.
Fort, Rodney and James Quirk. “Cross-subsidization, incentives, and outcomes in professional team sports leagues.” Journal of Economic Literature 33, no. 3 (1995): 1265–99.
Fort, Rodney and James Quirk. “Owner objectives and competitive balance.” Journal of Sports Economics 5, no. 1 (2004): 20–32.
Garicano, Luis, Ignacio Palacios-Huerta, and Canice Prendergast. “Favoritism under social pressure.” Review of Economics and Statistics 87, no. 2 (2005): 208–16.
Garrett, Thomas L. “U.S. income inequality.” Regional Economist, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 2008.
Gay, Jason. “Hey, let’s speed it up.” Wall Street Journal, October 6, 2017.
Goddard, John, Peter J. Sloane, and John O. S. Wilson. “The Bosman ruling and labor mobility in football (soccer).” In The Oxford Handbook of Sports Economics: The Economics of Sport Volume 1, edited by Leo Kahane and Stephen Schmanske, 259–80. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Goff, Brian. “Effects of university athletics on the university: a review and extension of empirical assessment.” Journal of Sport Management 14, no. 2 (2000): 85–104.
Goff, Brian. “Revisiting Romer: digging deeper in managerial decisions.” Working Paper, Western Kentucky University, 2017.
Goff, Brian L. and Robert D. Tollison, eds. Sportometrics. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1990.
Goff, Brian L. and Robert D. Tollison. “Racial integration of coaching: evidence from the NFL.” Journal of Sports Economics 10, no. 2 (2009): 127–40.
Goff, Brian L. and Thomas O. Wisley. “Is there a managerial life cycle? Evidence from the NFL.” Managerial and Decision Economics 27, no. 7 (2006): 563–72.
Goff, Brian L., H. Youn Kim, and Dennis P. Wilson. “Estimating the market value of collegiate football players from professional factor shares.” Applied Economics Letters 24, no. 4 (2016): 233–37.
Goff, Brian L., Robert E. McCormick, and Robert D. Tollison. “Racial integration as an innovation: empirical evidence from sports leagues.” American Economic Review 92, no. 1 (2002): 16–26.
Goff, Brian L., William F. Shughart, and Robert D. Tollison. “Batter up! Moral hazard and the effects of the designated hitter rule on hit batsmen.” Economic Inquiry 35, no. 3 (1997): 555–61.
Goff, Brian L., Robert D. Tollison, and G. W. Scully. “The rationality of crime in a basketball economy.” In Advances in the Economics of Sport 1, edited by Gerald Scully, 37–52. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, 1992.
Grier, Kevin B. and Robert D. Tollison. “Arbitrage in a basketball economy.” Kyklos 43, no. 4 (1990): 611–24.
Grier, Kevin B. and Robert D. Tollison. “The rookie draft and competitive balance: the case of professional football.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 25, no. 2 (1994): 293–98.
Griliches, Zvi. “Hybrid corn: an exploration in the economics of technological change.” Econometrica 25, no. 4 (1957): 501–22.
Gwartney, James and Charles Haworth. “Employer costs and discrimination: the case of baseball.” The Journal of Political Economy 82, no. 4 (1974): 873–81.
Hakes, Jahn K. and Raymond D. Sauer. “An economic evaluation of the Moneyball hypothesis.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 20, no. 3 (2006): 173–85.
Hall, Stephen, Stefan Szymanski, and Andrew S. Zimbalist. “Testing causality between team performance and payroll: the cases of Major League Baseball and English soccer.” Journal of Sports Economics 3, no. 2 (2002): 149–68.
Hanssen, F. Andrew and Torben Andersen. “Has discrimination lessened over time? A test using Baseball’s All-Star vote.” Economic Inquiry 37, no. 2 (1999): 326–52.
Horowitz, Ira. “The increasing competitive balance in Major League Baseball.” Review of Industrial Organization 12, no. 3 (1997): 373–87.
Humphreys, Brad R. and Nicholas Watanabe. “Competitive balance.” In The Oxford Handbook of Sports Economics: The Economics of Sport Volume 1, edited by Leo H. Kahane and Stephen Shmanske, 18–37. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Humphreys, Brad R., Bruce K. Johnson, Daniel S. Mason, and John C. Whitehead. “Estimating the value of medal success at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games.” University of Alberta, 2011.
Islam, T. M., Jenny Minier, and James P. Ziliak. “On persistent poverty in a rich country.” Southern Economic Journal 81, no. 3 (2015): 653–78.
Jaffe, Adam B., Manuel Trajtenberg, and Rebecca Henderson. “Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, no. 3 (1993): 577–98.
Jedidi, Kamel, Carl F. Mela, and Sunil Gupta. “Managing advertising and promotion for long-run profitability.” Marketing Science 18, no. 1 (1999): 1–22.
Jensen, Michael C. and William H. Meckling. “Theory of the firm: managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure.” Journal of Financial Economics 3, no. 4 (1976): 305–60.
Jewell, R. Todd, Robert W. Brown, and Scott E. Miles. “Measuring discrimination in major league baseball: evidence from the baseball hall of fame.” Applied Economics 34, no. 2 (2002): 167–77.
Kahn, Lawrence M. “Discrimination in professional sports: a survey of the literature.” Industrial & Labor Relations Review 44, no. 3 (1991): 395–418.
Kahn, Lawrence M. “The sports business as a labor market laboratory.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 14, no. 3 (2000): 75–94.
Kahn, Lawrence M. “Markets: cartel behavior and amateurism in college sports.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 21, no. 1 (2007): 209–26.
Kahn, Lawrence M. and Peter D. Sherer. “Racial differences in professional basketball players’ compensation.” Journal of Labor Economics 6, no. 1 (1988): 40–61.
Kanazawa, Mark T. and Jonas P. Funk. “Racial discrimination in professional basketball: evidence from Nielsen ratings.” Economic Inquiry 39, no. 4 (2001): 599–608.
Karlan, Dean and Jacob Appel. More Than Good Intentions: Improving the Ways the World’s Poor Borrow, Save, Farm, Learn, and Stay Healthy. New York: Penguin, 2011.
Kim, Jerry W. and Brayden G. King. “Seeing stars: Matthew effects and status bias in major league baseball umpiring.” Management Science 60, no. 11 (2014): 2619–44.
Kimeu, J. M. “Region-based athletic performance: an insight into positional segregation in team ports.” Masters Project, WKU Department of Economics, 2013.
Knowles, Glenn, Keith Sherony, and Mike Haupert. “The demand for major league baseball: a test of the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis.” The American Economist 36, no. 2 (1992): 72–80.
Knowles, John, Nicola Persico, and Petra Todd. “Racial bias in motor vehicle searches: theory and evidence.” Journal of Political Economy 177, no. 6 (2001): 203–29.
Kuper, Simon and Stefan Szymanski. Soccernomics. New York: HarperCollins, 2012.
Low, Sarah, Jason Henderson, and Stephan Weiler. “Gauging a region’s entrepreneurial potential.” Economic Review–Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City 90, no. 3 (2005): 61–89.
Madden, Janice Fanning. “Differences in the success of NFL coaches by race, 1990–2002 evidence of last hire, first fire.” Journal of Sports Economics 5, no. 1 (2004): 6–19.
Madden, Janice Fanning and Matthew Ruther. “Has the NFL’s Rooney rule efforts ‘leveled the field’ for African American head coach candidates?” Journal of Sports Economics 12, no. 2 (2011): 127–42.
McCormick, Robert E. and Robert D. Tollison. “Crime on the court.” The Journal of Political Economy 92, no. 2 (1984): 223–35.
McCormick, Robert E. and Robert D. Tollison. “Crime and income distribution in a basketball economy.” International Review of Law and Economics 6, no. 1 (1986): 115–24.
McCormick, Robert E. and Robert Tollison, “The subversion of the academy.” Accessed October 21, 2017. Available at http://thesportseconomist.com/2011/08/11/subversion-of-the-academy-by-the-ncaa.
Medoff, Marshall H. “Positional segregation and the economic hypothesis.” Sociology of Sport Journal 3, no. 3 (1986): 297–304.
Medoff, Marshall H. “Revisiting the economic hypothesis and positional segregation.” The Review of Black Political Economy 32, no. 1 (2004): 83–95.
Mills, Brian M. “Social pressure at the plate: inequality aversion, status, and mere exposure.” Managerial and Decision Economics 35, no. 6 (2014): 387–403.
Mixon, Franklin G. and Len J. Trevino. “From kickoff to commencement: the positive role of intercollegiate athletics in higher education.” Economics of Education Review 24, no. 1 (2005): 97–102.
Mixon, F. G., L. J. Trevino, and T. C. Minto. “Touchdowns and test scores: exploring the relationship between athletics and academics.” Applied Economics Letters 11, no. 7 (2004): 421–24.
Nardinelli, Clark and Curtis Simon. “Customer racial discrimination in the market for memorabilia: the case of baseball.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 105, no. 3 (1990): 575–95.
Neale, Walter C. “The peculiar economics of professional sports: a contribution to the theory of the firm in sporting competition and in market competition.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 78, no. 1 (1964): 1–14.
Noll, Roger G. “The organization of sports leagues.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 19, no. 4 (2003): 530–51.
Noll, Roger G. and Andrew S. Zimbalist, eds. Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1997.
Olson, Mancur. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.
Panja, Tariq, Andrew Martin, and Vernon Silver, “A league of his own.” Accessed October 20, 2017. Available at http://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2015-sepp-blatter-fifa/.
Parsons, Christopher A., Johan Sulaeman, Michael C. Yates, and Daniel S. Hamermesh. “Strike three: discrimination, incentives, and evaluation.” The American Economic Review 101, no. 4 (2011): 1410–35.
Pascal, Anthony H. and Leonard A. Rapping. Racial Discrimination in Organized Baseball. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1970.
Peel, David and Dennis Thomas. “Outcome uncertainty and the demand for football: an analysis of match attendances in the English football league.” Scottish Journal of Political Economy 35, no. 3 (1988): 242–49
Persico, Nicola. “Racial profiling, fairness, and effectiveness of policing.” The American Economic Review 92, no. 5 (2002): 1472–97.
Pope, Bryson R. and Nolan G. Pope. “Own-nationality bias: evidence from UEFA Champions League Football referees.” Economic Inquiry 53, no. 2 (2015): 1292–304.
Pope, Devin G., Joseph Price, and Justin Wolfers. “Awareness reduces racial bias.” Economic Studies at Brookings, ES Working Paper Series, February 2014.
Porter, Philip K. “The role of the fan in professional baseball.” In Diamonds Are Forever: The Business of Baseball, edited by Paul Sommers, 63–76. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1992.
Porter, Philip K. and Gerald W. Scully. “Measuring managerial efficiency: the case of baseball.” Southern Economic Journal 48, no. 3 (1982): 642–50.
Preuss, Holger. The economics of staging the Olympics: a comparison of the Games, 1972–2008. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004.
Price, Joseph and Justin Wolfers. “Racial discrimination among NBA referees.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 125, no. 4 (2010): 1859–87.
Price, Joseph and Justin Wolfers. “Biased referees?: Reconciling results with the NBA’s analysis.” Contemporary Economic Policy 30, no. 3 (2012): 320–28.
Quirk, James P. and Rodney D. Fort. Pay Dirt: The Business of Professional Team Sports. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.
Quirk, James P. and Rodney D. Fort. Hard Ball: The Abuse of Power in Pro Team Sports. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Radner, Roy. “Hierarchy: the economics of managing.” Journal of Economic Literature 30, no. 3 (1992): 1382–415.
Rascher, Daniel. (1999). “A test of the optimal positive production network externality in major league baseball.” In Baseball Economics: Current Research, edited by John Fizel, Elizabeth Gustafson, and Lawrence Hadley, 27–45. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
Romer, David. “Do firms maximize? Evidence from professional football.” Journal of Political Economy 114, no. 2 (2006): 340–65.
Rosen, Sherwin and Allen Sanderson. “Labour markets in professional sports.” The Economic Journal 111, no. 469 (2001): 47–68.
Ross, Stephen F. and Stefan Szymanski. “Antitrust and inefficient joint ventures: why sports leagues should look more like McDonald’s and less like the United Nations.” Marquette Sports Law Review 16, no. 2 (2005): 213–58.
Rottenberg, Simon. “The baseball players’ labor market.” The Journal of Political Economy 64, no. 3 (1956): 242–58.
Sandler, Todd and John T. Tschirhart. “The economic theory of clubs: an evaluative survey.” Journal of Economic Literature 18, no. 4 (1980): 1481–521.
Sauer, Raymond D. “The economics of wagering markets.” Journal of Economic Literature 36, no. 4 (1998): 2021–64.
Schelling, Thomas C. “Models of segregation.” American Economic Review 59, no. 2 (1969): 488–93.
Schelling, Thomas C. “Dynamic models of segregation.” Journal of Mathematical Sociology 1, no. 2 (1971): 143–86.
Schmidt, Martin B. and David J. Berri. “Competitive balance and market size in major league baseball: a response to baseball’s blue ribbon panel.” Review of Industrial Organization 21, no. 1 (2002): 41–54.
Schroffel, Jesse L. and Christopher S. P. Magee. “Own-race bias among NBA coaches.” Journal of Sports Economics 13, no. 2 (2012): 130–51.
Scully, Gerald W. “Economic discrimination in professional sports.” Law and Contemporary Problems 38, no.1 (1973): 67–84.
Scully, Gerald W. “Pay and performance in major league baseball.” The American Economic Review 64, no. 6 (1974a): 915–30.
Scully, Gerald. “Discrimination: the case of baseball.” In Government and the Sports Business, edited by Roger Noll, 221–73. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1974b.
Scully, Gerald W. “Managerial efficiency and survivability in professional team sports.” Managerial and Decision Economics 15, no. 5 (1994): 403–11.
Shughart, William F. and Robert D. Tollison. “Going for the gold: property rights and athletic effort in transitional economies.” Kyklos 46, no. 2 (1993): 263–72.
Simmons, Robert and Christian Deutscher. “The economics of the World Cup.” In The Oxford Handbook of Sports Economics: The Economics of Sport Volume 1, edited by Leo H. Kahane and Stephen Shmanske, 449–69. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Skousen, Clifford. R. and Frank A. Condie. “Evaluating a sports program: goalposts v. test tubes.” Managerial Accounting 70, no. 5 (1988): 43–49.
Sowell, Thomas. Race & Culture. New York: Basic Books, 1995.
Stamper, Norm. To Protect and Serve. New York: Nation Books, 2016.
Sugden, John and Alan Tomlinson. FIFA and the Contest for World Football: Who Rules the People’s Game? Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998.
Szymanski, Stefan. “The economic design of sporting contests.” Journal of Economic Literature 41, no. 4 (2003): 1137–87.
Szymanski, Stefan and Stefan Kesenne. “Competitive balance and gate revenue sharing in team sports.” The Journal of Industrial Economics 52, no. 1 (2004): 165–77.
Szymanski, Stefan and Ron Smith. “The English football industry: profit, performance and industrial structure.” International Review of Applied Economics 11, no. 1 (1997): 135–53.
Tainsky, Scott. “Television broadcast demand for National Football League contests.” Journal of Sports Economics 11, no. 6 (2010): 629–40.
Tollison, Robert D. “Understanding the antitrust economics of sports leagues.” Antitrust 14, no. 1 (1999): 21–24.
Torgler, Benno. “The economics of the FIFA Football Worldcup.” Kyklos 57, no. 2 (2004): 287–300.
Tygiel, Jules. Baseball’s Great Experiment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Walker, Mark and John Wooders. “Minimax play at Wimbledon.” American Economic Review 91, no. 5 (2001): 1521–38.
Whitlock, Jason. “Martin walked into a twisted world.” November 8, 2013. Accessed October 22, 2017. Available at http://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/9941696/jonathan-martin-walked-twisted-world-led-incognito.
Wilson, Dennis P. “Additional law enforcement as a deterrent to criminal behavior: empirical evidence from the National Hockey League.” The Journal of Socio-Economics 34, no. 3 (2005): 319–30.
Wilson, James Q. and George L. Kelling. “Broken windows.” Atlantic Monthly 249, no. 3 (1982): 29–38.
Yetman, Norman R. “Positional segregation and the economic hypothesis: a critique.” Sociology of Sport Journal 4, no. 3 (1987): 274–77.
Zak, Thomas A., Cliff J. Huang, and John J. Siegfried. “Production efficiency: the case of professional basketball.” Journal of Business 52, no. 3 (1979): 379–92.
Zimbalist, Andrew. Baseball and Billions: A Probing Look Inside the Big Business of our National Pastime. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
Zimbalist, Andrew. Unpaid Professionals: Commercialism and Conflict in Big-Time College Sports. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.
Zimbalist, Andrew S. “Competitive balance in sports leagues – an introduction.” Journal of Sports Economics 3, no. 2 (2002): 111–21.