Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Financialising City Statecraft and Infrastructure

Andy Pike, Peter O’Brien, Tom Strickland, Graham Thrower and John Tomaney

Financialising City Statecraft and Infrastructure addresses the struggles of national and local states to fund, finance and govern urban infrastructure. It develops fresh thinking on financialisation and city statecraft to explain the socially and spatially uneven mixing of managerial, entrepreneurial and financialised city governance in austerity and limited decentralisation across England. As urban infrastructure fixes for the London global city-region risk undermining national ‘rebalancing’ efforts in the UK, city statecraft in the rest of the country is having uneasily to combine speculation, risk-taking and prospective venturing with co-ordination, planning and regulation.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you


Andy Pike, Peter O’Brien, Tom Strickland, Graham Thrower and John Tomaney

Aalbers, M B (2015) The potential for financialization, Dialogues in HumanGeography, 5, 2, 214–219.
Aberdeen City and Shire Economic Future (2013) The Economic Action Plan for Aberdeen City and Shire 2013–2018, Aberdeen City and Shire Economic Future: Aberdeen.
Aberdeen City Council (2016) Aberdeen City Region Deal,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Aberdeen City Council (2017) FOI-17-1326 – Bond Issue,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
ACCA (2012) Taking Stock of PPP and PFI Around the World, Association of Chartered Certified Accountants: London.
Adam, S, Emmerson, C and Kenley, A (2007) A Survey of Local Government Finance, Institute for Fiscal Studies, IFS Briefing Note 74, IFS: London.
African Development Bank Group (2017) Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Ahrend, R, Farchy, E, Kaplanis, I and Lembcke, A C (2014) What makes cities more productive? Evidence on the role of urban governance from five OECD countries, OECD Regional Development Working Papers 2014/05, OECD: Paris.
Aldrich, M (1980) A history of public works in the United States, 1790–1970. In CONSAD: A Study of Public Works Investment in the United States, US Department of Commerce: Washington, DC.
Allen, J and Pryke, M (2013) Financialising household water: Thames Water, MEIF, and “ring-fenced” politics, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 6, 3, 419–439.
Allen, J, Charlesworth, J, Cochrane, A, Court, G, Henry, N, Massey, D and Sarre, P (1998) Rethinking the Region: Spaces of Neoliberalism, Routledge: London.
Alves, B (2018) Key phrase for 2018: “social purpose”, Infrastructure Investor,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
American Society of Civil Engineers (2017) Infrastructure Report Card, ASCE: Reston, VA.
Amin, A, Massey, D and Thrift, N (2003) Decentering the Nation: A Radical Approach to Regional Inequality, Catalyst: London.
AMP Capital (2013) Understanding Infrastructure – A Reference Guide, Sydney: Australia.
Andersson, T, Haslam, C, Lee, E, Katechos G and Tsitsianis, N (2010) Corporate strategy financialized: conjuncture, arbitrage and earnings capacity in the S&P500, Accounting Forum, 34, 3–4, 211–221.
Anguelov, D, Leitner, H and Sheppard, E (2018) Engineering the financialization of urban entrepreneurialism: The JESSICA urban development initiative in the European Union, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 42, 4, 573–593.
Arcadis (2016) Third Global Infrastructure Investment Index: Bridging the Investment Gap, Arcadis: London.
Arcadis (2018) Investing in Britain, Arcadis: London.
Arrow, K J and Kurz, M (1970) Public Investment, Rate of Return, and Optimal Fiscal Policy, Johns Hopkins Press: Baltimore.
Arup (2014) The Cost of London’s Long-term Infrastructure, Arup: London.
Aschauer, D A (1989) Is public expenditure productive? Journal of Monetary Economics, 23, 2, 177–200.
Ashton, P (2018) “Third wave” infrastructure privatization and the shifting materiality of public assets, Presentation, “Public Wealth of Cities and Regions?” Session, American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting, April, New Orleans.
Ashton, P, Doussard, M and Weber, R (2012) The financial engineering of infrastructure privatization: what are public assets worth to private investors? Journal of the American Planning Association, 78, 3, 300–312.
Ashton, P, Doussard, M and Weber, R (2016) Reconstituting the state: city powers and exposures in Chicago’s infrastructure leases, Urban Studies, 53, 7, 1384–1400.
Atter, L (2014) The Devolutionaries Powering up England, BBC Radio 4, 13 October.
Audit Commission (2000) Hot Property: Getting the Best from Local Authority Assets, Belmont Press: London.
Australian Financial Services Council and Ernst and Young (2011) Financing Australia’s infrastructure needs: superannuation investment in infrastructure,$FILE/Superannuation_Investment_In_Infrastructure.pdf; Accessed: 28 October 2014.
Ayres, S (2015) Assessing the impact of “informal governance” on devolution in English cities post the Scottish referendum, Presentation, Regional Studies Association Annual Conference, May, Piacenza.
Ayres, S, Flinders, M and Sandford, M (2017) Territory, power and statecraft: understanding English devolution, Regional Studies, 52, 6, 853–864.
Ayres, S and Pearce, G (2013) A Whitehall perspective on decentralisation in England’s emerging territories, Local Economy, 28, 7–8, 801–816.
Bailey, D (2017) Comment: time right to end Service Birmingham JV, Birmingham Post,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Baker, T, Cook I R, McCann, E, Temenos, C and Ward, K (2016) Policies on the move: the transatlantic travels of Tax Increment Financing, Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 106, 2, 459–469.
Baldwin, D A (1985) Economic Statecraft, Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.
Banks, B (2013) Addressing Africa’s Infrastructure Deficit, EY,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Barnes, T, Peck, J, Sheppard, E and Tickell, A (2007) Methods matter. In A Tickell, E Sheppard, J Peck and T Barnes (Eds.) Politics and Practice in Economic Geography, Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, 1–24.
Bassett, K A (1996) Partnerships, business elites and urban politics: new forms of governance in an English city? Urban Studies, 33, 539–555.
BBA (2015) Financing the UK’s Infrastructure Needs, BBA: London.
BBC News (2017) Heathrow cost of third runway cut by £2.5bn, BBC News,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Bennington, J (1976) Local Government Becomes Big Business, Community Development Project: Coventry.
Bentley, Z (2017) Investors’ infra allocation desire increased by 38%, Infrastructure Investor,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Berry, B J L (1981) Comparative Urbanization, Macmillan: Basingstoke.
Beswick, J and Penny, J (2018) Demolishing the present to sell off the future? The emergence of “financialized municipal entrepreneurialism” in London, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 42, 4, 612–632.
Bieling, H (2013) European financial capitalism and the politics of (de-) financialisation, Competition and Change, 17, 3, 283–298.
Birch, K (2017) Rethinking value in the bio-economy: finance, assetization and the management of value, Science, Technology and Human Values, 42, 3, 460–490.
Birch, K and Siemiatycki, M (2016) Neoliberalism and the geographies of marketisation: the entangling of states and markets, Progress in Human Geography, 40, 2, 177–198.
BIS (2010) Understanding Local Growth, BIS Economics Paper 7, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS): London.
Bishop, M (2009) The Economist: Economics: An A–Z Guide, Profile Books: London.
Blöchliger, H and Pinero-Campos, J (2011) Tax Competition Between Sub-Central Governments, OECD Network on Fiscal Relations across Levels of Governments, OECD: Paris.
Blyth, M (2013) Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Boff, A (2015) Southern Powerhouse: True Devolution for London and the South East, GLA Conservatives;; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Bogadanor, V (2005) Introduction. In V Bogdanor (Ed.) Joined-up Government, Clarendon Press and British Academy: Oxford, 1–18.
Bore, A (2013) Time for a major rethink as Jaws of Doom widen, Birmingham Post,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Bottini, N, Coelho, M and Kao, J (2017) Infrastructure and Growth, LSE Growth Commission: London School of Economics.
Bouch, C, Rogers, C, Dawson, R, Baker, C, Quinn, A and Walsh, C (2015) A systems-based approach to the identification of user/infrastructure interdependencies as a precursor to identifying opportunities to improve infrastructure project value/cost ratios. In T Dolan and B Collins (Eds.) International Symposium for Next Generation Infrastructure Conference Proceedings, International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schloss Laxenburg, Vienna, Austria and UCL STEaPP: London, UK, 141–144.
Bounds, A and Mitchell, T (2018) Chinese investments in UK fail to materialise, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Bourne, R and Zuluaga, D (2016) Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth, Institute for Economic Affairs: London.
Boustani, E (2018) Variegated firm finance and global production networks: studying capital sources of car component manufacturers in Hungary and eastern Germany, PhD Thesis, CURDS: Newcastle University.
Bowman, A, Froud, J, Johal, S, Law, J, Leaver A, Moran, M and Williams, K (2014) The End of the Experiment? From Competition to the Foundational Economy, Manchester University Press: Manchester.
Boyle, M and Hughes, G (1994) The politics of urban entrepreneurialism in Glasgow, Geoforum, 25, 453–470.
Bradbury, J (2006) Territory and power revisited: theorising territorial politics in the United Kingdom after devolution, Political Studies, 54, 3, 559–582.
Bradbury, J (2010) Jim Bulpitt’s Territory and Power in the United Kingdom and interpreting political development: bringing the state and temporal analysis back in, Special Issue: Territory and Power and the Study of the UK, Comparative Politics, 45, 3, 318–344.
Brenner, N (2004) New State Spaces: Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Brenner, N and Schmid, C (2013) The “urban age” in question, International Journal for Urban and Regional Research, 38, 3, 731–755.
Brenner, N and Theodore, N (2012) Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and Western Europe, Blackwell Publishing: Malden, MA.
Brown, A and Robertson, M (2014) Economic Evaluation of Systems of Infrastructure Provision: Concepts, Approaches, Methods, iBUILD/Leeds Report,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Brown, A, Passarella, M V and Robertson, M (2014) The economics of infrastructure. In A Brown and M Robertson (Eds.) Economic Evaluation of Systems of Infrastructure Provision: Concepts, Approaches, Methods, iBUILD/Leeds Report, 12–17.
Brown, A, Passarella, M and Spencer, D (2017) The extent and variegation of financialisation in Europe: a preliminary analysis, Revista de Economia Mundial/Journal of World Economy, 46, 49–70.
Brownhill, S (1993) Turning the East End into the West End: the lessons and legacies of the London Docklands Development Corporation. In R Imrie and H Thomas (Eds.) British Urban Policy and the Urban Development Corporations, Sage: London, 43–63.
Buchanan, J, Froud, J, Johal S and Williams, K (2009) Undisclosed and Unsustainable: The Problems of the UK National Business Model, CRESC Working Paper,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Buck, M (2017) Crossrail project: finance, funding and value capture for London’s Elizabeth Line, ICE Proceedings,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Buckley, J (2016) Canada Life agrees £73m Wightlink Ferry Terminal deal, CoStar,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Building (2013) Hammerson drops £600m Sevenstone scheme, Building, 29 July,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Buller, J (1999) A critical appraisal of the statecraft interpretation, Public Administration, 77, 4, 691–712.
Bulpitt, J (1983) Territory and Power in the United Kingdom, Manchester University Press: Manchester.
Bulpitt, J (1986) The discipline of the New Democracy: Mrs. Thatcher’s domestic statecraft, Political Studies, 34, 1, 19–39.
Bulpitt, J (1989) Walking back to happiness? Conservative Party governments and elected local authorities in the 1980s. In C Crouch and D Marquand (Eds.) The New Centralism, Blackwell: Oxford, 56–73.
Bulpitt, J (1995) Historical politics: macro, in-time, governing regime analysis. In J Lovenduski and J Stanyer (Eds.) Contemporary Political Studies 1995, vol. II, Political Studies Association: Belfast, 510–520.
Bulpitt, J (2008) Territory and Power in the United Kingdom, ECPR: Colchester.
Burawoy, M (1998) The extended case method, Sociological Theory, 16, 1, 4–33.
Burn-Murdoch, A (2017) Financial Scrutiny Unit Briefing – City Region Deals, 17/19, Scottish Parliament Information Centre: Edinburgh.
Burnham, A (2017) Why England’s north is still waiting for its powerhouse, The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Burnham, A (2018) Our over-centralised Westminster system has too long prioritised investment inside the M25 – that may be about to change, Huffington Post, Blog,; Accessed: 25 September 2018.
Burton, P (2016) City Deals: nine reasons why this imported model of urban development demands due diligence, The Conversation, 1 April, ; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Business Reporter (2015) City of London is “the engine of the UK economy”,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Byrne, M (2016) “Asset price urbanism” and financialization after the crisis: Ireland’s National Asset Management Agency, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 40, 1, 31–45.
Calderón, C, Moral-Benito, E and Servén, L (2011) Is Infrastructure Capital Productive? A Dynamic Heterogeneous Approach, Policy Research Working Paper 5682, World Bank: Washington, DC.
Carr, R (2012) Credit Where Credit’s Due: Investing in Local Infrastructure to Get Britain Growing, Localis: London.
Carr, R (2015) Commercial Councils: The Rise of Entrepreneurialism in Local Government, Localis: London.
Carr-West, J, Lucas, L and Thraves, L (2011) Risk and Reward: Local Government and Risk in the New Public Realm, Local Government Information Unit: London.
Castree, N and Christophers, B (2015) Banking spatially on the future: capital switching, infrastructure, and the ecological fix, Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 105, 2, 378–386.
CBRE (2013) Crossrail: The Impact on London’s Property Market, CBRE research: London.
Centre for Cities (2014) Is there a better way to talk about London infrastructure and One North?,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
CEPA (2017) Financing for Infrastructure: Report for the National Infrastructure Commission, CEPA: Cambridge.
Chakrabortty, A (2016) A Brexit betrayal is coming – but who will get the blame? The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Chapman, G (n.d.) The Future for Commercialism in Local Government, Nottingham City Council: Nottingham.
Cheshire, P, Nathan, M and Overman, H (2014) Urban Economics and Policy, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham.
Christophers, B (2012) Anaemic geographies of financialization, New Political Economy, 17, 3, 271–291.
Christophers, B (2015) The limits to financialization, Dialogues in Human Geography, 5, 2, 183–200.
Christophers, B (2018) The New Enclosure, Verso: London.
Christopherson, C, Martin, R and Pollard J (2013) Financialisation: roots and repurcussions, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 6, 3, 351–357.
CIPFA (2016) Balancing Local Authority Budgets, CIPFA: London.
City Growth Commission (2014) Outdated infrastructure stifling city growth and costing UK £billions, RSA,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Civil Engineering Contractors Association (2013) The Infrastructure Decade, CECA: London.
Clark, A and Cochrane, A (1989) Inside the machine: the left and finance professionals in Local Government, Capital and Class, 37, 13, 35–61.
Clark, D G (1992) The effectiveness of incentive payment systems: an empirical test of individualism as a boundary condition, PhD thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science.
Clark, G and Clark, G (2014) Nations and the Wealth of Cities: A New Phase in Public Policy, Centre for London: London.
Clark, G and Mather, J (2003) Total politics: the failures of the command state. In G Clark and J Mather (Eds.) Total Politics – Labour’s Command State, Conservative Policy Unit: London, 1–8.
Clark, G L and Wrigley, N (1995) Sunk costs: a framework for economic geography, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 20, 2, 204–223.
Clark, J (2018) £1bn London Power Tunnels project opens, New Civil Engineer,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Clark, S and Gaile, G (1998) The Work of Cities, University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN.
Clark, T (2017) Mayor of London calls for UK-wide infrastructure boost, Construction News,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Clegg, N (2014) Speech to the “Northern Futures” Conference, Leeds, 6 November.
Cochrane, A (1993) Whatever Happened to Local Government?, Open University Press: London.
Cochrane, A (2007) Understanding Urban Policy: A Critical Approach, Blackwell: Oxford.
Cochrane, A (2015) So, how come local government is still around after all these years? Regional Studies, 2, 1, 448–454.
Collier, P and Venables, A J (2016) Urban infrastructure for development, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32, 3, 39–409.
CLG (2012) “City Deals” to be widened across England,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
CLG (2016) Local Authority Assets: Disposal Guidance, CLG: London.
CLG (2017a) Self-sufficient Local Government: 100% Business Rates Retention, CLG: London.
CLG (2017b) Consultation on the Proposed Changes to the Prudential Framework of Capital Finance,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Communities and Local Government Committee (2014) Devolution in England: The Case for Local Government, House of Commons,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Conrad, M (2018) Northamptonshire County Council agrees to sell new £53m headquarters,LocalGov,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Core Cities (2017a) Invest Reform Trust: A Core Cities UK Green Paper for a Stronger, Fairer Britain, Core Cities: Manchester.
Core Cities (2017b) Core Cities UK welcomes National Infrastructure Assessment,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Core Cities and PwC (2008) Unlocking Growth: Interim Findings on New Funding Mechanisms, Core Cities: Manchester and PwC: London.
Cox, C (2017) Greater Manchester town halls to share £90m thanks to airport’s record year,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Coyle, D (2017) Discuss Manchester Panel,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Coyle, D and Sensier, M (2018) The Imperial Treasury: Appraisal Methodology and Regional Economic Performance in the UK, Working Paper 02/2018, Bennett Institute for Public Policy, University of Cambridge: Cambridge,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Crafts, N (1996) Endogenous Growth: Lessons for and from Economic History, Discussion Paper 1333, Centre for Economic Policy Research: London.
Crafts, N (2005) Market potential in British regions, 1871–1931, Regional Studies, 39, 9, 1159–1166.
Credit Suisse Asset Management (2010) Can infrastructure investment enhance portfolio efficiency? White Paper, May,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Crerar, P (2012) “Give London back its tax”: Boris Johnson demands return on cash that capital makes for Britain, The Evening Standard, ; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Crewe, T (2016) The strange death of municipal England, London Review of Books, 38, 24, 6–10.
Crisp, R, Ferrari, E, Gore, T, Green, S, McCarthy, L, Rae, A, Reeve, K and Stevens, M (2017) Tackling Transport-related Barriers to Employment in Low Income Neighbourhoods, Joseph Rowntree Foundation: York.
Crossrail One (2018) About us: Funding,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Crossrail Two (2018) Discover: Funding,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Crouch, C (2004) Post-Democracy, Polity: Cambridge.
Crouch, C and Le Galès, P (2012) Cities as national champions? Journal of European Public Policy, 19, 3, 405–419.
Cumbers, A (2012) Reclaiming Public Ownership: Making Space for Economic Democracy, Zed: London.
Dahl, R A (1961) Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City, Yale University Press: New Haven, CT.
Dalton, H (1922) The Principles of Public Finance, Routledge & Kegan Paul: London.
Danielsson, J (2009) The first casualty of the crisis: Iceland. In A Felton and C M Reinhart (Eds.) The First Global Financial Crisis of the 21st Century, Part II June–December 2008, Centre for Economic Policy Research: London, 9–13.
Davidson, M and Ward, K (2014) “Picking up the pieces”: austerity urbanism, California and fiscal crisis, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 7, 1, 81–97.
Davidson, M and Ward, K (2018) Cities under Austerity: Restructuring the US Metropolis, State University of New York Press: New York.
Davies, R (2017) Chancellor targets English regions with multibillion investment, The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Davis, A and Walsh, C (2015) The role of the state in the financialization of the UK economy, Political Studies, 64, 3, 666–682.
Davis, G F and Kim, S (2015) Financialization of the economy, Annual Review of Sociology, 41, 203–221.
Dawson, R (2013) Bridges n’ that: An Infrastructure Definition for iBUILD, Briefing Note 1, iBUILD: Newcastle University,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Dawson, R (2015) Handling interdependencies in climate change risk assessment, Climate, 3, 4, 1079–1096.
Dawson, R, Wyckmans, A, Heidrich, O, Köhler, J, Dobson, S and Feliu, E (2014) Understanding Cities: Advances in Integrated Assessment of Urban Sustainability, Final Report of COST Action TU0902, Centre for Earth Systems Engineering Research (CESER): Newcastle University.
Debt Resistance UK (2015) How Local Authority Debt is Draining Millions from Pubic Funds,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (2017) Policy Paper: Introduction to Sector Deals,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Department for Transport (2013) The Strategic Case for HS2, Department for Transport: London.
Department for Transport (2017a) Strategic Case Supplementary Guidance: Moving Britain Ahead, Department for Transport: London.
Department for Transport (2017b) National Productivity Investment Fund Regional Breakdown,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Deruytter, L (2017) Shadow banking within: Inter-municipal companies and the financialisation of the Belgian local state, Presentation, American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting, April, Boston.
Deruytter, L and Derudder, B (2018) Keeping financialisation under the radar: Brussels Airport, Macquarie Bank and the Belgian politics of financialised infrastructure, Urban Studies.
Detter, D (2017) UK councils are taking huge commercial risks in trying to be hedge fund managers, The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Detter, D and Fölster, S (2015) The Public Wealth of Nations: How Management of Public Assets Can Boost or Bust Economic Growth, Palgrave Macmillan: London.
Detter, D and Fölster, S (2017) The Public Wealth of Cities: How to Unlock Hidden Assets to Boost Growth and Prosperity, Palgrave Macmillan: London.
DfT/Mayor of London (2016) A New Approach to Rail Passenger Services in London and the South East: Working in Partnership To Improve Services And Support Growth, Department for Transport/Mayor of London: London.
Discuss Manchester (2017) Industrial strategy, city regions and the economy, Panel Discussion, 12 Oct 2017,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Dodson, J (2017) The global infrastructure turn and urban practice, Urban Policy and Research, 35, 1, 87–92.
Donald, B (2005) The politics of local economic development in Canada’s city-regions: new dependencies, new deals, and a new politics of scale, Space and Polity, 9, 3, 261–281.
Dosset, P (2013) What can UK local authorities learn from Detroit’s descent into bankruptcy?, The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Dreher, A, Sturm, J E and Vreeland, J R (2009) Global horse trading: IMF loans for votes in the United Nations Security Council, European Economic Review, 53, 7, 742–757.
Easterling, K (2014) Extrastatecraft: The Power of Infrastructure Space, Verso: London.
Eberts, R and McMillen, D (1999) Agglomeration economies and urban public infrastructure. In P C Cheshire and E S Mills (Eds.) Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Edition 1, Volume 3, Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1455–1495.
Economy, Infrastructure and Skills Committee (2017) City Deals and the Regional Economies of Wales, National Assembly of Wales: Cardiff.
Edinburgh Evening News (2017) Cost of Edinburgh tram inquiry hits £5m,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Elmer, V and Leigland, A (2014) Infrastructure Planning and Finance: A Smart and Sustainable Guide, Routledge: New York.
Emmerich, M (2017) Help the regions play a role too, Financial Times, 3 October, Financial Times: London;; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Engelen, E, Fernandez, R and Hendrikse, R (2014) How finance penetrates its other: a cautionary tale on the financialization of a Dutch university, Antipode, 46, 4, 1072–1091.
Epstein, G A (2005) Financialization and the World Economy, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham.
European Commission (2016) The Investment Plan for Europe, European Commission: Brussels.
European Institute for Gender Equality (2016) Gender in Transport, European Institute for Gender Equality: Vilnius,, Accessed: 24 August 2018.
EY (2017) Regional Forecast: Rebalancing the Economy, Issue 3, Winter 2017–18, EY: London.
Fainstein, S (2016) Financialisation and justice in the city: a commentary, Urban Studies, 53, 7, 1–6.
Farmer, S (2014) Cities as risk managers: the impact of Chicago’s parking meter P3 on municipal governance and transportation planning, Environment and Planning A, 46, 9, 2160–2174.
Fields, D S (2018) Constructing a new asset class: property-led financial accumulation after the crisis, Economic Geography, 94, 2, 118–140.
Financial Director (2016) What Brexit means for the UK’s infrastructure projects,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Financial Times (2016) Infrastructure bonds may prove a costly soundbite, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Financial Times (2017) Editorial: UK’s ailing infrastructure can no longer be ignored, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Fine, B (2012) Financialisation on the rebound, Actuel Marx, 51, 73–85.
Fine, B and Saad-Filho, A (2016) Thirteen things you need to know about neoliberalism, Critical Sociology, 43, 4–5, 685–706.
Fitch (2017) Rating Definitions,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Florida, R (2017) Fixing the new urban crisis, CityLab,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Flyvbjerg, B (2006) Five misunderstandings about case-study research, Qualitative Inquiry, 12, 2, 219–245.
Folkman, P, Froud, J, Johal, S, Tomaney, J and Williams, K (2016) Manchester Transformed: Why We Need a Reset of City Regional Policy, CRESC Public Interest Report,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Ford, J and Plimmer, G (2018) Pioneering Britain has a rethink on privatization, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Fox, K (1977) Better City Government: Innovation in American Urban Politics, 1850–1937, Temple University Press: Philadelphia.
Fox Gotham, K and Greenberg, M (2014) Crisis Cities: Disaster and Redevelopment in New York and New Orleans, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Fraser, A (2010) The craft of scalar practices, Environment and Planning A, 42, 332–346.
French, S, Leyshon, A and Wainwright, T (2011) Financializing space, spacing financialization, Progress in Human Geography, 35, 6, 798–819.
Froud, J, Johal, S, Leaver, A and Williams, K (2006) Financialization and Strategy: Narrative and Numbers, Routledge: London.
Fuerer, G (2015) How can we bridge the $1 trillion infrastructure gap?, World Economic Forum, Institutional Investors,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Fujita, M, Krugman, P and Mori, T (1999) On the evolution of hierarchical urban systems, European Economic Review, 43, 209–251.
Fuller, C (2013) Urban politics and the social practices of critique and justification: conceptual insights from French pragmatism, Progress in Human Geography, 37, 5, 639–657.
Gamble, A (1979) The Free Economy and the Strong State, Macmillan: Basingstoke.
Gehrke, J P (2016) A radical endeavor: Joseph Chamberlain and the emergence of municipal socialism in Birmingham, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 75, 1, 23–57.
General Contractors Association of New York (2017) They Said It Shouldn’t Be Done – Aren’t You Glad No One Listened? General Contractors Association: New York.
Gibbons, S, Lyytikäinen, T, Overman, H and Sanchis-Guarner, R (2017) New Road Infrastructure: The Effects on Firms, SERC Discussion Paper 214, SERC, London School of Economics.
Giles, C (2017) Why London deserves a thank you note from the rest of Britain, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
GLA Economics (2014) Growing Together II: London and the UK Economy, GLA Economics: London,
Glaeser, E L (2016) If you build it … myths and realities about America’s infrastructure spending, City Journal,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Goldman, M (2011) Speculative urbanism and the making of the next world city, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35, 3, 555–581.
Goodwin, M (2004) Recovering the future: a post-disciplinary perspective on geography and political economy. In P Cloke, P Crang and M Goodwin (Eds.) Envisioning Human Geographies, Arnold: London, 65–80.
Gordon, I (2011) London capital of boom and bust?, Observatoire de la Société Britannique: la Revue, 11, 69–88.
Gordon, I R (2016) Quantitative easing of an international financial centre: how central London came so well out of the post-2007 crisis, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 9, 335–353.
Graham, S (2010) When infrastructures fail. In S Graham (Ed.) Disrupted Cities: When Infrastructure Fails, Routledge: London, 1–26.
Graham, S and Marvin, S (2001) Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition, Routledge: London.
Gramlich, E (1994) Infrastructure investment: a review essay, Journal of Economic Literature, 32, 3, 1176–1196.
Greater London Authority (2016) London: The Global Powerhouse, GLA: London.
Greater London Authority (2017) Planning London’s Future (Good Growth Policies), GLA Economics: London.
Green, D (2012) All change again at the PWLB,Room 151: Local Government Treasury, Technical and Strategic Finance,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Green, H and Booth, P (1996) Six years of urban policy in France: The contrat de ville programme, Modern and Contemporary France, 4, 2, 183–192.
Green Investment Bank (2016) Annual Report and Accounts 2015–16, UK Green Investment Bank: London.
Greenhalgh, P and Purewal, B (2015) Challenging the myths: an investigation of the barriers to wider use of Local Asset Backed Vehicles in the UK, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 8, 3, 260–278.
Greenwald, D (1965) The McGraw Hill Dictionary of Modern Economics, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Guironnet, A, Attuyer, K and Halbert, L (2016) Building cities on financial assets: the financialisation of property markets and its implications for city governments in the Paris city-region, Urban Studies, 53, 7, 1442–1454.
Guldi, J (2012) Roads to Power: Britain Invents the Infrastructure State, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
Guttman, D and Willner, B (1976) The Shadow Government: The Government’s Multi-Billion-Dollar Giveaway of Its Decision-Making Powers to Private Management Consultants, Experts, and Think Tanks, Random House: New York.
Hackworth, J R (2007) The Neoliberal City: Governance, Ideology, and Development in American Urbanism, Cornell University Press: Ithaca, NY.
Halbert, L and Attuyer, K (2016) Introduction: the financialisation of urban production: conditions, mediations and transformations, Urban Studies, 53, 7, 1347–1361.
Halbert, L, Henneberry, J and Mouzakis, F (2014) The financialization of business property and what it means for cities and regions, Regional Studies, 48, 3, 547–550.
Hall, D (2015) Why PPPs Don’t Work, Public Services International: Ferney-Voltaire.
Hall, J, Tran, M, Hickford, A and Nicholls, R (2016) The Future of National Infrastructure: A System-of-Systems Approach, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Hall, P (1963) London 2000, Faber and Faber: London.
Hall, P (1989) Introduction. In P Hall (Ed.) The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism Across Nations, Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 3–26.
Hall, P (1999) Cities in Civilisation: Culture, Innovation and Urban Order, Phoenix Giant: London.
Hall, P and Pain, K (2006) The Polycentric Metropolis: Learning from Mega City-Regions in Europe, Earthscan: London.
Hall, S and Jonas, A E G (2014) Urban fiscal austerity, infrastructure provision and the struggle for regional transit in “Motor City”, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 7, 1, 189–206.
Hall, S and Leyshon, S (2013) Editorial: financialization, space and place, Regional Studies, 47, 6, 831–833.
Hall, T and Hubbard, P (1996) The entrepreneurial city: new urban politics, new urban geographies? Progress in Human Geography, 20, 153–174.
Hamel, P and Keil, R (2015) Suburban Governance: A Global View, University of Toronto Press: Toronto.
Hammond, P (2017) Autumn Budget 2017 Speech, 22 November,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Hancock, T (2017) China encircles the world with One Belt, One Road strategy, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Handley, L (2017) What is HS2 and how much will it cost? The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Hansen, N M (1965) The structure and determinants of local public investment expenditures, Review of Economics and Statistics, 2, 150–162.
Harrison, J (2014) Rethinking city-regionalism as the production of new non-state spatial strategies: the case of Peel Holdings Atlantic Gateway Strategy, Urban Studies, 51, 11, 2315–2335.
Harrison, J and Hoyler, M (2015) Megaregions: Globalizations’ New Urban Form? Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham.
Harvey, D (1978) The urban process under capitalism: a framework for analysis, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2, 1–4, 101–131.
Harvey, D (1982) The Limits to Capital, Basil Blackwell: Oxford.
Harvey, D (1985) Consciousness and the Urban Experience, Basil Blackwell: Oxford.
Harvey, D (1989a) From managerialism to entrepreneurialism: the transformation in urban governance in late capitalism, Geografiska Annaler. Series B. Human Geography, 71, 1, 3–17.
Harvey, D (1989b) The Urban Experience, The Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, MD.
Harvey, D (1989c) The Condition of Post-Modernity, Wiley-Blackwell: Cambridge, MA.
Harvey, D (2006) Spaces of Global Capitalism: Towards a Theory of Uneven Geographical Development, Verso: London.
Harvey, D (2010) The Enigma of Capital and the Crises of Capitalism, Profile Books: London.
Harvey, D (2012) The urban roots of financial crises: reclaiming the city for anti-capitalist struggle, Socialist Register, 48, 1–35.
Harvey, D (2015) Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Hassink, R., Klaedering, C and Marques, P (2014) Advancing evolutionary economic geography by engaged pluralism, Regional Studies, 48, 1295–1307.
Haughton, G, Deas, I and Hincks, S (2014) Making an Impact: when agglomeration boosterism meets antiplanning rhetoric, Town and Country Planning, 83, 6–7, 277–281.
Haughton, G, Deas, I, Hincks, S and Overman, H G (2015) Letters to the editor, Environment and Planning A, 47, 1, 243–246.
Headlam, N (2016) A 10-year Agenda for Cities and Public Policy,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Hebb, T and Sharma, R (2014) New finance for America’s cities, Regional Studies, 48, 3, 485–500.
Hedgecock, A (n.d.) Commercialism: The Nottingham Journey,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Helm, D (2009) Infrastructure investment, the cost of capital, and regulation: an assessment, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 25, 3, 307–326.
Helm, D (2013) British infrastructure policy and the gradual return of the state, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 29, 2, 287–306.
Henckel, T and McKibbin, W (2010) The Economics of Infrastructure in a Globalized World: Issues, Lessons and Future Challenges, The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC.
Henderson, S R (2014) Urban regeneration companies and their institutional setting: prevailing instabilities within the West Midlands, Local Economy, 29, 6–7, 635–656.
Hendrikse, R P (2015) The long arm of finance: exploring the unlikely financialization of governments and public institutions, PhD Thesis, Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research: Amsterdam.
Higginson, M (2013) Workplace parking levies as an instrument of transport policy, Presentation, Transport Operations Research Group, Newcastle University.
Highways Magazine (2017) Liverpool ends Amey contract to save cash by insourcing,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Hildyard, N (2016) Licensed Larceny: Infrastructure, Financial Extraction and the Global South, Manchester University Press: Manchester.
Hill, D (2016) Is the government truly on London’s side?, The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Hiscott, G (2017) Buy a slice of history in the Great British sell-off as infrastructure is snapped up by foreign firms, The Daily Mirror,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
HM Government (2008) Planning Act,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
HM Government (2011a)Unlocking Growth in Cities, Cabinet Office: London.
HM Government (2011b) Open Public Services White Paper, HM Government: London.
HM Government (2017) Industrial Strategy: Building a Britain Fit for the Future, HM Government: London.
HM Treasury (2006) The Eddington Transport Study, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury (2012) Budget Press Release, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury (2013) Investing in Britain’s Future, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury (2015a) A Country That Lives Within Its Means: Spending Review 2015, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury (2015b) Fixing the Foundations: Creating a More Prosperous Nation, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury (2015c) Business Rates Review: Terms of Reference and Discussion Paper, HM Treasury London.
HM Treasury (2016) Private Finance Initiative and Private Finance 2 Projects: 2016 Summary Data, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury (2018) The Green Book: Central Government Guidance on Appraisal and Evaluation, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury and IUK (2010a) National Infrastructure Plan 2010, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury and IUK (2010b) Infrastructure Cost Review: Main Report, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury and IUK (2010c) Infrastructure Cost Review: Technical Report, HM Treasury: London.
HM Treasury and Mayor of London (2015) Long-term Economic Plan for London, HM Treasury and Mayor of London: London.
Hobsbawm, E (1994) Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century 1914–1991, Abacus: London,
Hodson, M, Evans, J and Schliwa G (2018) Conditioning experimentation: the struggle for place-based discretion in shaping urban infrastructures, Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space.
Hornyak, T (2013) Crisis in America: crumbling infrastructure, CNBC,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts (2016) Financial Sustainability of Local Authorities, Twenty-sixth report of session, HC 708, House of Commons: London.
HS2 Growth Taskforce (2014) High Speed 2: Get Ready, Department for Transport: London.
iBUILD (2015) Are You Being Served? Alternative Infrastructure Business Models to Improve Economic Growth and Well-being, iBUILD manifesto and mid-term report, Newcastle University,; Accessed: 29 August 2015.
iBUILD (2018) Closing the Gap: Local Infrastructure Business Models to Support Inclusive Growth, Final Report, Newcastle University,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Imrie, F and Thomas, H (1999) British Urban Policy: An Evaluation of the Urban Development Corporations, Sage Publications: London.
Inderst, G (2010) Infrastructure as an asset class, European Investment Bank Papers, 15, 1, 70–104.
Inderst, G and Stewart, F (2014) Institutional Investment in Infrastructure in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies, Public–Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility, World Bank Group: Washington, DC.
Industrial Strategy Commission (2017) The Final Report of the Industrial StrategyCommission,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Inrix (2018) Inrix reveals congestion at the UK’s worst traffic hotspots to cost drivers £62 billion over the next decade,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Institute for Government (2017) Financing Infrastructure,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Institute of Civil Engineers (2017) Delivering a Northern Infrastructure Strategy, Institute of Civil Engineers: London.
International Monetary Fund (2014) World Economic Outlook, IMF: Washington, DC.
International Transport Workers Federation (2015) Workers’ Capital and Infrastructure: A Guide for Union Trustees, ITWF: London.
IPA (2016) National Infrastructure Delivery Plan 2016–2021, IPA: London.
IPA (2017) Analysis of the National Infrastructure and Construction Pipeline, IPA: London.
IPE Real Assets (2017)Top 100 Global Infrastructure Investors,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
IPPR North (2014) Transformational Infrastructure for the North: Why We Need A Great North Plan, IPPR North: Manchester.
IPPR North (2017) Paying for Our Progress, IPPR North: Manchester.
Jacobson, C D and Tarr, J A (1994) Ownership and Financing of Infrastructure: Historical Perspectives, Policy Research Working Paper 1466, World Bank: Washington DC.
James, T (2016) Neo-statecraft theory, historical institutionalism and institutional change, Government and Opposition, 51, 1, 84–110.
Jenkins, S (2015) The secret negotiations to restore Manchester to greatness, The Guardian, 12 February,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Jenkins, S (2016) Stop obsessing about planes and trains, and start using roads better, The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Jessop, B (1997) The entrepreneurial city: re-imaging localities, redesigning economic governance, or restructuring capital? In N Jewson and S MacGregor (Eds.) Realising Cities: New Spatial Divisions and Social Transformation, Routledge: London, 28–41.
Jessop, B (1998) The rise of governance and the risks of failure: the case of economic development, International Social Science Journal, 50, 155, 29–45.
Jessop, B (2002) The Future of the Capitalist State, Polity Press: Cambridge.
Jessop, B (2008) State Power, Polity Press: Cambridge.
Jessop, B (2013) Recovered imaginaries, imagined recoveries: a cultural political economy of crisis construals and crisis-management in the North Atlantic Financial Crisis. In M Benner (Ed.) Beyond the Global Economic Crisis: Economics and Politics for a Post-Crisis Settlement, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, 234–254.
Jessop, B (2018) The financialisation of governments, the public sector and states, FINGEO Plenary Lecture, Brussels, May.
Jessop, B and Oosterlynck, S (2008) Cultural political economy: on making the cultural turn without falling into soft economic sociology, Geoforum, 39, 3, 1155–1169.
John, P (2008) New introduction: territory and power and the study of comparative politics. In J Bulpitt (Ed.) Territory and Power in the United Kingdom: An Interpretation, European Consortium for Political Research: Colchester, 1–16.
Jonas, A E G and Moisio, S (2016) City regionalism as geopolitical processes: a new framework for analysis, Progress in Human Geography, 42, 3, 350–370.
Jonas, A E G and Wilson, D (1999) The Urban Growth Machine: Critical Perspectives, Two Decades Later, State University of New York Press: New York.
Jonas, A E G, Goetz, A R and Bhattacharjee, S (2014) City Regionalism as a politics of collective provisions: regional transport infrastructure in Denver, USA, Urban Studies, 51, 11, 2444–2465.
Jonas, A E G, While, A and Gibbs, D (2010) Managing infrastructural and service demands in new economic spaces: the new territorial politics of collective provision, Regional Studies, 44, 2, 183–200.
Jones, M (1997) Spatial selectivity of the state? The regulationist enigma and local struggles over economic governance, Environment and Planning A, 29, 5, 831–864.
Jones, M (2008) Recovering a sense of political economy, Political Geography, 27, 377–399.
Jones, P, Eyers T and Bray, J (2004) The Jubilee Line Extension Impact Study: Main Findings and Lessons Learnt, Association for European Transport: London.
Judd, D R and Ready, R L (1986) Entrepreneurial cities and the new politics of local economic development. In G E Peterson and C W Lewis (Eds.) Reagan and the Cities, The Urban Institute Press: Washington, DC, 209–247.
Kangas, A (2013) Governmentalities of Big Moscow: particularising neo-liberal statecraft, Geopolitics, 18, 2, 299–314.
Katz, B (2016) Embracing radical localism, The Brookings Institution, 4 May,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Katz, B, Noring, L and Verdis, S (2017) Governing city infrastructure: who drives the urban project cycle?, The Brookings Institution,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Keenan, L (2017) Financialisation, the brewing industry and the changing role of the pub in Britain and Germany, PhD Thesis, CURDS: Newcastle University.
Kerslake, R (2014a) Speech to the “Northern Futures” Conference, Leeds, 6 November.
Kerslake, R (2014b) Speech to the Regen 2014 Conference, 25 June, Liverpool.
Kerslake Review of the Treasury (2017) Rethinking the Treasury,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Kettl, D F (2010) The looming infrastructure crisis, Governing: the States and Localities,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Key Cities (2017) United and Industrious: Working Together to Build the UK’s Industrial Strategy, Key Cities: Wakefield.
Kim, J (2016) Handbook on Urban Infrastructure Finance, New CitiesFoundation,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Kirkpatrick, L O and Smith, M P (2011) The infrastructural limits to growth: rethinking the urban growth machine in times of fiscal crisis, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35, 477–503.
Kirlin, J J and Marshall, D R (1988) Urban governance: the new politics of entrepreneurship. In M McGeary and J Lynn Jr (Eds.) Urban Change and Poverty, National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 348–373.
Kissinger, H (1994) Diplomacy, Simon and Schuster Paperbacks: New York.
Klein, M (2017) US cities must unlock the value of the land they sit on, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Knight, B (2000) The flypaper effect unstuck: evidence on endogenous grants from the Federal Highway Programme, Mimeo, September, Federal Reserve Board of Governors: Washington, DC.
KPMG (2013) HS2 Regional Economic Impacts, Report for the Department of Transport, KPMG: London.
KPMG (2014) Introducing UK City Deals: A Smart Approach to Supercharging Economic Growth and Productivity, KPMG: New South Wales.
KPMG (2015) City Deals: Road to long term infrastructure funding, strategic planning and greater local control, KPMG Presentation, KPMG: Australia.
KPMG and Property Council of Australia (2015) Introducing UK City Deals: A Smart Approach to Supercharging Economic Growth and Productivity, KPMG: Australia.
Krippner, G (2005) The financialization of the American economy, Socio-economic Review, 3, 173–208.
Krippner, G (2011) Capitalizing on Crisis: The Political Origins of the Rise of Finance, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
Krueger, R and Gibbs, D (2007) The Sustainable Development Paradox: Urban Political Economy in the US and Europe, The Guilford Press: New York.
Kunzru, H (2016) Book Review of Trump and Me by Mark Singer, The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Kutz, W (2017) Municipalizing geo-economic statecraft: crisis and transition in Europe, Environment and Planning A, 49, 6, 1224–1246.
Kynaston, D (2012) City of London: The History, Vintage: London.
Lagna, A (2016) Derivatives and the financialisation of the Italian state, New Political Economy, 21, 2, 167–186.
Lai, K P Y and Daniels, J A (2016) Financialization of Singaporean banks and the production of variegated financial capitalism. In B Christophers, A Leyshon and G Mann (Eds.) Money and Finance After the Crisis: Critical Thinking for Uncertain Times, Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, 217–244.
Lake, R W (2015) The financialization of urban policy in the age of Obama, Journal of Urban Affairs, 37, 75–78.
Lapavitsas, C and Powell, J (2013) Financialisation varied: a comparative analysis of advanced economies, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 6, 3, 359–379.
Lasswell, H (1936) In Politics: Who Gets What, When, How, Whittlesey House: New York.
Lauermann, J (2016) Municipal statecraft: revisiting the geographies of the entrepreneurial city, Progress in Human Geography, 42, 2, 205–224.
Lauria, M (1996) (Ed.) Reconstructing Urban Regime Theory: Regulating Urban Politics in a Global Economy, Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Leach, S, Stewart, J and Jones, G (2018) Centralisation, Devolution and the Future of Local Government in England, Routledge: London.
Lee, N (2017) Powerhouse of cards? Understanding the “Northern Powerhouse”, Regional Studies, 51, 3, 478–489.
Lee, R, Clark, G L, Pollard, J and Leyshon, A (2009) The remit of financial geography – before and after the crisis, Journal of Economic Geography, 9, 723–747.
Lee, S (2017) Law, legislation and rent-seeking: the role of the Treasuryled developmental state in the competitive advantage of the Southern Powerhouse. In C Berry and A Giovannini (Eds.) Developing England’s North: Building a Sustainable Political Economy, Palgrave Macmillan: Cham, 59–83.
Legacy, C (2016) Infrastructure planning: in a state of panic? Journal of Urban Policy and Research, 35, 1, 61–73.
Le Galès, P (2016) Neoliberalism and urban change: stretching a good idea too far? Territory, Politics, Governance, 4, 2, 154–172.
Leitner, H (1990) Cities in pursuit of economic growth: the local state as entrepreneur, Political Geography Quarterly, 9, 2, 146–170.
Leonard, S (1982) Urban managerialism: a period of transition? Progress in Human Geography, 6, 2, 190–215.
Leong, L (2016) The “Rail plus Property” model: Hong Kong’s successful self-financing formula,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Leunig, T and Swaffield, J (2008) Cities Unlimited: Managing Urban Regeneration Work, London: Policy Exchange.
Leys, C (2003) Market-Driven Politics: Neo-liberal Democracy and the Public Interest, Verso: New York and London.
Local Government Association (2017) Enterprising Councils: Supporting Councils’ Income Generation Activities, LGA: London.
Local Government and Communities Committee (2018) City Regions – Deal or No Deal?, SP Paper 254 1st Report, Session 5, Scottish Parliament: Edinburgh.
Localis (2010) The London Borough of Barnet: The “easyCouncil” Approach, Localis: London.
Loftus, A and March, H (2017) Integrating what and for whom?Financialisation and the Thames Tideway Tunnel, Urban Studies.
Logan, R and Molotch, H (1987) Urban Fortunes: The Political Economy of Place, University of California Press: Berkeley.
London Assembly (2015) Devolving Rail Services to London: Towards a South London Metro, Transport Committee, London Assembly: London.
London Finance Commission (2013) Raising the Capital: The Report of the London Finance Commission: London.
London Finance Commission (2017) Devolution: A Capital Idea, London Finance Commission: London.
London First (2012) London’s Infrastructure: Investing for Growth, London First: London.
Loo, B P Y, Chen, C and Chan, E T H (2010) Rail-based transit-oriented development: lessons from New York City and Hong Kong, Landscape and Urban Planning, 97, 3, 202–212.
MacKinnon, D (2017) Regional inequality, regional policy and progressive regionalism, Soundings, 65, 141–158.
MacKinnon, D, Cumbers, A, Pike, A, Birch, K and McMaster, R (2009) Evolution in economic geography: institutions, political economy and adaptation, Economic Geography, 85, 129–150.
MacLeod, G (2002) From urban entrepreneurialism to a “revanchist city”? On the spatial injustices of Glasgow’s renaissance. In N Brenner and N Theodore (Eds.) Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and Western Europe, Blackwell: Oxford, 254–276.
Mahony, C (2017) Leaders call for Brexit “city deal”, The Municipal Journal,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Mance, H (2018) A singular case for London independence, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Marrs, C (2017) Local government doubles spending on property and land, Room 151: Local Government Treasury, Technical and Strategic Finance,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Marrs, C (2018) Rob Whiteman: rise of dealmaker CEOs puts governance skills “at risk”, Room 151: Local Government Treasury, Technical and Strategic Finance,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Marshall, A and Finch, D (2006) City Leadership: Giving City-Regions the Power to Grow, Centre for Cities: London.
Marshall, T (2013) Planning Major Infrastructure: A Critical Analysis, Routledge: New York and London.
Marshall, T (2014) Infrastructure future and spatial planning: lessons from France, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK, Progress in Planning, 89, 1–38.
Martin, R (1999a) The new economic geography of money. In R Martin (Ed.) Money and the Space Economy, Wiley: Chichester, 3–27.
Martin, R (1999b) Selling-off the state: privatisation, the equity market and the geographies of private shareholding. In R Martin (Ed.) Money and the Space Economy, Wiley: Chichester, 260–283.
Martin, R (2008) National growth versus spatial equality? A cautionary note on the new “trade-off” thinking in regional policy discourse, Regional Science Policy and Practice, 1, 1, 3–13.
Martin, R and Pollard, J (2017) Handbook on the Geographies of Money and Finance, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham.
Martin, R and Sunley, P (1997) The Post-Keynesian state and the spaceeconomy. In R Lee and J Wills (Eds.) Geographies of Economies, Edward Arnold: London, 278–289.
Martin, R, Gardiner, B and Tyler, P (2014) The Evolving Economic Performance of UK Cities: City Growth Patterns 1981–2011, Future of Cities: Working Paper, Foresight, Government Office for Science: London.
Martin, R, Pike, A, Tyler, P and Gardiner, B (2016) Spatially rebalancing the UK Economy: towards a new policy model? Regional Studies, 50, 2, 342–257.
Marvin, S, Harding, A and Robson, B (2006) A Framework for City Regions, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister: London.
Massey, D (2007) World City, Polity: Cambridge.
Masters, J (2017) Adonis urges parity for north–south investment, Infrastructure Intelligence,; Accessed: 29 August 2018,
Maxwell-Jackson, Q (2013) Build the Infrastructure: Bin the Wish List, CentreForum: London.
May, T (2016) We can make Britain a country that works for everyone, Conservatives,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Mayor of London (2015) London Plan 2015, Mayor of London: London.
Mayor of London (2017) Mayor calls for major increase in UK infrastructure investment, 7 September,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
McCann, E (2017) Governing urbanism: urban governance studies 1.0, 2.0 and beyond, Urban Studies, 54, 2, 312–326.
McCann, E J and Ward, K (2011) Introduction: urban assemblages: territories, relations, practices, and power. In E J McCann and K Ward (Eds.) Mobile Urbanism: Cities and Policymaking in the Global Age, Minnesota University Press: Minneapolis, MN, xiii–xxxv.
McCann, P (2016) The UK Regional–National Economic Problem: Geography, Globalisation and Governance, Routledge: London.
McCann, P (2018) Panelist Comments, ESRC and IPPR North Brexit Summit, May, Leeds Civic Centre.
McCarthy, A (2018) The changing role and structure of the local state in economic development, PhD Thesis, CURDS: Newcastle University.
McGough, L and Bessis, H (2015) Delivering Change: Making the Most of Public Assets, Centre for Cities: London.
McKinsey (2016) Bridging Global Infrastructure Gaps, June, McKinsey Global Institute: New York.
McKinsey & Co (2015) Global Infrastructure Initiative, McKinsey and Co: New York.
Meade, J (1964) Efficiency, Equality and the Ownership of Property, George Allen and Unwin Ltd: London.
Meek, J (2014) Private Island: Why Britain Now Belongs to Someone Else, Verso: London and New York.
Mercer (2017) Quality of Living Rankings,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Mohan, G and Tan-Mullins, M (2019) The geopolitics of South–South infrastructure development: Chinese-financed energy projects in the global South, Urban Studies.
Möller, S (2015) The financialisation of local governance: municipal government’s activities on financial markets, Presentation, FESSUD Annual Conference 2015, 15 October, Lisbon.
Möller, S (2017) Financializing town halls: Local councils, LOBO loans and the derivatives markets, Sheffield Political Economy Research Institute,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Moody’s (2016) Aberdeen City Council: United Kingdom, Moody’s: New York,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Moody’s (2017) Moody’s downgrades 54 UK sub-sovereign issuers and changes outlook to stable; universities and two local authorities retain negative outlook. Affirms University of Cambridge’s Aaa rating with stable outlook,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Moody’s (n.d.) Rating Scale and Definitions, Moody’s: New York.
Mooney, A (2017) Wales seeks manager for £13bn pension pot, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Mor, F (2017) Infrastructure Policies and Investment, Briefing Paper 6594, House of Commons Library: London.
Moran, M and Williams, K (2015) “Devo Manc”: “Northern Powerhouse” or “Northern Poorhouse”? Speri.comment: the political economy blog, 7 April,; Accessed: 29 August 2018,
Moran, M, Tomaney J and Williams, K (2018) Territory and power in England: the political economy of Manchester and beyond. In M Kennery, I McLean and A Paun (Eds.) Governing England: English Institutions and Identity in a Changing UK, British Academy: London, 189–206.
Moreno, L (2014) The urban process under financialised capitalism, City, 18, 3, 244–268.
Morgan, K (2006) Devolution and development: territorial justice and the north–south divide, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 36, 1, 189–206.
Morphet, J (2017) Sub-regional strategic spatial planning: the use of statecraft and scalecraft in delivering the English model, Town Planning Review, 88, 6, 665–682.
Mourougane, A, Botev, J, Fournier, J, Pain, N and Rusticelli, E (2016) Can an increase in public investment sustainability lift economic growth? Economics Department Working Paper 1251, OECD: Paris.
Muellerleile, C M (2009) Financialization takes off at Boeing, Journal of Economic Geography, 9, 5, 663–677.
Muldoon-Smith, K and Greenhalgh, P (2016) Civic financialisation: constructing local welfare through property tax, Presentation,Financialisation and Local Government Workshop, December, CURDS: Newcastle University.
Mulley, C (2013) Accessibility and residential land value uplift: identifying spatial variations in the accessibility impacts of a bus transitway, Urban Studies, 51, 8, 1707–1724.
Musson, S (2009) The Geography of Private Finance Initiative, Geographical Paper 188, University of Reading.
NAO (2013a) Planning for Economic Infrastructure, National Audit Office: London.
NAO (2013b) Financial Sustainability of Local Authorities, National Audit Office: London.
NAO (2014) Crossrail, National Audit Office: London.
NAO (2015a) UK Guarantees Scheme for Infrastructure, National AuditOffice: London.
NAO (2015b) Devolving Responsibilities to Cities in England: Wave 1 City Deals, National Audit Office: London.
NAO (2015c) The Choice of Finance for Capital Investment, National Audit Office: London.
NAO (2016a) Delivering Major Projects in Government: A Briefing for the Committee of Public Accounts, National Audit Office: London.
NAO (2016b) Departmental Overview: HM Treasury, National AuditOffice: London.
NAO (2016c) Financial Sustainability of Local Authorities: Capital Expenditure and Resourcing, National Audit Office: London.
NAO (2018) PFI and PF2, National Audit Office: London.
Newell, G and Peng, H W (2008) The role of US infrastructure in investment portfolios, Journal of Real Estate Portfolio Management, 14, 1, 21–34.
NIC (2016) Cambridge – Milton Keynes – Oxford Corridor: Interim Report, National Infrastructure Commission: London.
NIC (2017) Congestion, Capacity, Carbon: Priorities for National Infrastructure, National Infrastructure Commission: London.
North East Chamber of Commerce (2017) Chamber urges transport secretary to visit North East, 9 August,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
O’Brien, P and Pike, A (2015) City deals, decentralization and the governance of local infrastructure funding and financing in the UK, National Institute Economic Review, 233, 1, 14–26.
O’Brien, P and Pike, A (2018) Deal or no deal? Governing infrastructure funding and financing in the UK City Deals, Urban Studies.
O’Brien, P, Pike, A and Tomaney, J (2018) Governing the (un)governable? Financialisation and the governance of transport infrastructure in the London global city-region, Progress in Planning.
O’Connor, J (1973) Fiscal Crisis of the State, St Martin’s Press: New York.
O’Neill, P (2004) Bringing the qualitative state back into Economic Geography. In T J Barnes, J Peck, E Sheppard and A Tickell (Eds.) Reading Economic Geography, Blackwell: Oxford, 257–270.
O’Neill, P (2012) The language of local and regional development. In
A Pike, A Rodríguez-Pose and J Tomaney (Eds.) Handbook of Local and Regional Development, Routledge: New York, 551–568.
O’Neill, P (2013) The financialisation of infrastructure: the role of categorization and property relations, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 6, 3, 441–454.
O’Neill, P (2015) Infrastructure’s Stubborn Spatiality and its Maturing Financialisation,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
O’Neill, P (2017) Managing the private financing of urban infrastructure, Urban Policy and Research, 35, 1, 32–43.
O’Neill, P (2018) Government draws iron curtain on our biggest contracts, The Herald, 17 September,; Accessed: 25 September 2018.
OECD (2014) Private Financing and Governmental Support to Promote Long-term Investments in Infrastructure, OECD: Paris.
OECD (2015) Fostering Investment in Infrastructure, OECD: Paris.
Office for Budget Responsibility (2017) Fiscal Policy and Growth,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Office of Road and Rail (2018) Passenger Rail Usage Statistics,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Oliver Wyman (2017) Bridging the Infrastructure Gap: Engaging the Private Sector in Critical National Development, Oliver Wyman: New York.
Olivera, O and Lewis, T (2004) ¡Cochabamba! Water War in Bolivia, SouthEnd Press: Cambridge, MA.
ONS (2016) Country and regional public sector finances: Financial year ending March,; Accessed 29 August 2018.
ONS (2017) Regional gross value added (income approach), UK: 1997 to 2015,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Ó Riain, S (2014) The Rise and Fall of Ireland’s Celtic Tiger: Liberalism, Boom and Bust, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Osborne, D and Gaebler, T (1992) Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector, Penguin Books: New York.
Osborne, G (2014) We need a Northern powerhouse,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Osborne, G (2015) Chancellor George Osborne’s Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015 Speech,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Ostry, J, Ghosh, A, Kim, J and Qureshi, M (2010)Fiscal Space, International Monetary Fund: Washington DC.
Overman, H G (2014a) How unbalanced is infrastructure spending?, Spatial Economics Research Centre Blog,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Overman, H G (2014b) Making an impact: misreading, misunderstanding, and misrepresenting research does nothing to improve the quality of public debate and policymaking, Environment and Planning A, 46, 10, 2276–2282.
Overman, H G (2015) Commentary: what “should” urban policy do? A further response to Graham Haughton, Iain Deas and Stephen Hicks, Environment and Planning A, 47, 1, 245–246.
Overman, H G (2017) It’s not that London is too big, but that other large UK cities are too small, LSE blog,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Overman, H G and Rice, P (2008) Resurgent Cities and Regional Economic Performance, SERC policy papers, SERCPP001, Spatial Economics Research Centre: London School of Economics.
Paddison, R (2009) Some reflections on the limitations to public participation in the post-political city, L’espace Politique, 8, 2, 1–15.
Paine, D (2018) Haringey Labour pledges to abandon controversial development vehicle, Local Government Chronicle,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Parker, G and Bounds, A (2017) Theresa May hits back at critics over Northern Powerhouse, Financial Times, 23 August,; Accessed 29 August 2018.
Partington, R (2017) Aberdeen joins councils raising money by selling bonds as cuts bite, The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Patterson, A and Pinch, P L (1995) “Hollowing out” the local state: compulsory competitive tendering and the restructuring of British public sector services, Environment and Planning A, 27, 9, 1437–1461.
Peck, J (2012) Austerity urbanism: American cities under extreme economy, City, 16, 6, 626–655.
Peck, J (2013) Explaining (with) neoliberalism, Territory, Politics, Governance, 1, 2, 132–157.
Peck, J (2014) Pushing austerity: state failure, municipal bankruptcy and the crises of fiscal federalism in the USA, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 7, 1, 17–44.
Peck, J (2016) Transatlantic urbanism, part 1, Urban Studies, 54, 1, 4–30.
Peck, J and Theodore, N (2007) Variegated capitalism, Progress in Human Geography, 31, 6, 731–772.
Peck, J and Theodore, N (2012) Follow the policy: a distended case approach, Environment and Planning A, 44, 21–30.
Peck, J and Theodore, N (2015) Fast Policy: Experimental Statecraft at the Thresholds of Neoliberalism, University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis.
Peck, J and Whiteside, H (2016) Financializing Detroit, Economic Geography, 92, 3, 235–268.
Peck, J, Theodore, N and Brenner, N (2013) Neoliberal urbanism redux? International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37, 3, 1091–1099.
Peden, G C (1984) The “Treasury view” on public works and employment during the inter-war period, Economic History Review, 37, 2, 167–181.
Peel, M and Mitchell, T (2017) Asia’s $26tn infrastructure gap threatens growth, ADB warns, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Pemberton, S and Searle, G (2016) Statecraft, scalecraft and urban planning: a comparative study of Birmingham, UK, and Brisbane, Australia, European Planning Studies, 24, 1, 76–95.
Perrons, D (2004) Understanding social and spatial divisions in the new economy: new media clusters and the digital divide, Economic Geography, 80, 1, 45–61.
Peterson, G E (2009)Unlocking Land Values to Finance Urban Infrastructure, The World Bank: Washington, DC.
Pickard, J, Plimmer, G and Rovnick, N (2016) UK drawing up plans for infrastructure bonds, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Pickles, E (2011) The Rt. Hon Eric Pickles MP, Secretary of State, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government – Funding the future: Transforming local authorities in the new financial climate, The National Archives,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Pierre, J (2014) Can urban regimes travel in time and space? Urban regime theory, urban governance theory, and comparative urban politics, Urban Affairs Review, 50, 6, 864–889.
Pike, A (2006) “Shareholder value” versus the regions: the closure of the Vaux Brewery in Sunderland, Journal of Economic Geography, 6, 2, 201–222.
Pike, A (2014) From Brown Ale to “blandscape”, Centre for Urban and Regional Development Studies Blog,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Pike, A (2018a) The origins of city-centrism,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Pike, A (2018b) The limits of city-centrism,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Pike, A and Pollard, J (2010) Geographies of financialisation, Economic Geography, 86, 1, 29–51.
Pike, A and Tomaney, J (2009) The state and uneven development: the governance of economic development in England in the post-devolution UK, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 2, 1, 13–34.
Pike, A, Rodríguez-Pose, A and Tomaney, J (2007) What kind of local and regional development and for whom? Regional Studies, 41, 9, 1253–1269.
Pike, A, Birch, K, Cumbers, A, MacKinnon, D and McMaster, R (2009) A geographical political economy of evolution in economic geography, Economic Geography, 85, 175–182.
Pike, A, Rodríguez-Pose, A, Tomaney, J, Torrisi, G and Tselios, V (2012) In search of the “economic dividend” of devolution: spatial disparities, spatial economic policy, and decentralisation in the UK, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 30, 1, 10–28.
Pike, A, Marlow, D, McCarthy, A, O’Brien, P and Tomaney, J (2015) Local institutions and local economic development: the Local Enterprise Partnerships in England, 2010–, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8, 2, 185–204.
Pike, A, MacKinnon, D, Cumbers, A, Dawley, S and McMaster, R (2016a) Doing evolution in economic geography, Economic Geography, 96, 2, 123–144.
Pike, A, Kempton, L, Marlow, D, O’Brien, P and Tomaney, J (2016b) Decentralisation: Issues, Principles and Practice, CURDS: Newcastle University.
Pike, A, Coombes, M, O’Brien, P and Tomaney, J (2018) Austerity states, institutional dismantling and the governance of sub-national economic development: the demise of the regional development agencies in England, Territory, Politics, Governance, 6, 1, 118–144.
Pilgrim, M (2006) London regional governance and the London Boroughs, Local Government Studies, 32, 3, 223–238.
Plender, J (2017) A quirky and hazardous corner of British public finance, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Plimmer, G (2015) Thames “super sewer”, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Plimmer, G (2016a) Investment in infrastructure assets soars to record, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Plimmer, G (2016b) Oxford–Cambridge rail link could create UK “Silicon Valley”, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Plimmer, G and Bounds, A (2017) London’s £30bn Crossrail 2 project moves a step forward, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Plimmer, G and Cumbo, J (2016) UK infrastructure set for £1.3bn fund boost, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Plimmer, G and Tetlow, G (2017) Why the UK is struggling with poor infrastructure, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Pollock, A (2005) NHS plc: The Privatisation of Our Health Care, Verso: London.
Powley, T (2017) Government backs new Thames crossing to east of London, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Powley, T and Wright, R (2017) UK abandons rail upgrades and delays decision on network funding, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Prinssen, P (2016) The use of City Deals for sustainable innovation: what can the Netherlands learn from UK experiences? MSc Research Proposal, Utrecht University.
Pryke, M and Allen, J (2018) Financialising Urban Water Infrastructure: Extracting Local Value, Distributing Value Globally, Urban Studies,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Puentes, R (2015) Why infrastructure matters: rotten roads, bum economy, Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative, The Brookings Institution,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
PwC (2014) Crossrail 2: Funding and Financing Study, PwC: London.
PwC (2018) Asset and Wealth Management Revolution: Embracing Exponential Change, PwC: London.
Raco, M (2012) A growth agenda without growth: English spatial policy, sustainable communities, and the death of the neo-liberal project?, GeoJournal, 77, 2, 153–165.
Raco, M (2013) State-led Privatisation and the Demise of the Democratic State, Ashgate Publishing: Farnham, Surrey.
Raco, M and Gilliam, K (2012) Geographies of abstraction, urban entrepreneurialism, and the production of new cultural spaces: the West Kowloon Cultural District, Hong Kong, Environment and Planning A, 44, 6, 1425–1442.
Raco, M, Street, E and Freire-Trigo, S (2015) The new localism, antipolitical development machines, and the role of planning consultants: lessons from London’s South Bank, Territory, Politics, Governance, 4, 2, 216–240.
Ralph, O (2016) Aviva plans further £10bn infrastructure injection, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Rankin, W J (2009) Infrastructure and the international governance of economic development, 1950–1965. In J-F Auger, J J Bouma and R Künneke (Eds.) Internationalization of Infrastructures: Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on the Economics of Infrastructures, Delft University of Technology: Delft, 61–75.
Reed, S and Ussher, K (2013) (Eds.) Towards Co-Operative Councils: Empowering People to Change Their Lives, Mutuo: London.
Regeneration Investment Organisation (2016) Regeneration Investment Organisation, UK Trade and Investment: London.
Rhodes, R A W (1988) Beyond Westminster and Whitehall, Unwin and Hyman: London.
Rhodes, C, Hough, D and Butcher, L (2014) Privatisation, Research Paper 14/61, House of Commons Library: London.
Ridley, N (1988) The Local Right, Centre for Policy Studies: London.
Ritchie, P (2017) Early learning from a City Deal, Public Sector Executive,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Roberts, M (2016) Communication breakdown: understanding the role of policy narratives in political conflict and consensus, Critical Policy Studies, 12, 1, 82–102.
Rodríguez-Pose, A (2018) The revenge of the places that don’t matter (and what to do about it), Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 11, 1, 189–209.
Rodrik, D (2017)Populism and the Economics of Globalization, Unpublished Paper, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University: Cambridge, MA.
Rosenthal, B (2017) The most expensive mile of subway track on earth, New York Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Rostow, W W (1960) The Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Rowark, M (2014) Infrastructure – an essential part of everyday life, Infrastructure Intelligence,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Royal Commission on the Distribution of the Industrial Population [Barlow Commission] (1940), Cmd. 6153, HMSO: London.
Rozario, D (2017) The facts about transport spending in London, London Government,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Rutland, T (2010) The financialization of urban redevelopment, Geography Compass, 4, 8, 1167–1178.
Ryan-Collins, J, Lloyd, T and Macfarlane, L (2017) Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing, Zed: London.
Samuelson, P A (1954) The pure theory of public expenditure, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 36, 4, 387–389.
Sandbu, M (2015) Book Review: “The Public Wealth of Nations” by Dag Detter and Stefan Fölster, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Sandford, M (2016) Local Government in England: Capital Finance, Briefing Paper 05797, House of Commons Library: London.
Sandford, M (2017a) Local Government: Commercial Property Investments, Briefing Paper 08142, House of Commons Library: London.
Sandford, M (2017b) Signing up to devolution: the prevalence of contract over governance in English devolution policy, Regional and Federal Studies, 27, 1, 63–82.
Sanfelici, D and Halbert, L (2018) Financial market actors as urban policy-makers: the case of real estate investment trusts in Brazil, Urban Geography,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Santos, A (2013) Financial literacy, financialisation and neo-liberalism. In B Fine, C Happer, E Karacimen, A Santos, A Brown and D Spencer (Eds.) FESSUD Report on Material and Cultural Aspects of Financialisation, 59–102, University of Leeds 59–102.
Sassen, S (1991) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.
Savini, F and Aalbers, M (2016) The de-contextualisation of land use planning through financialisation: urban redevelopment in Milan, European Urban and Regional Studies, 23, 4, 878–894.
Savitch, H V (1988) Post-Industrial Cities: Politics and Planning in New York, Paris and London, Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.
Sawyer, M (2017) Financialisation, Economy Society and Sustainable Development: An Overview, FESSUD Working Paper 206, University of Leeds.
Sbragia, A (1986) Capital markets and central–local politics in Britain, British Journal of Political Science, 16, 3, 311–339.
Scott, A J (Ed.) (2002) Global City-Regions: Trends, Theory, Policy, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Scott, A J and Storper, M (2015) The nature of cities: the scope and limits of urban theory, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 39, 1, 1–15.
Scottish Government (2015) Scotland’s Economic Strategy, Scottish Government: Edinburgh.
Sen, A (1999) Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Serebrisky, T, Suárez-Alemán, A, Margot, D and Ramirez, M C (2015) Financing Infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean: How, How Much and by Whom? Inter-American Development Bank: Washington, DC.
Shackleton, J and Zuluaga, D (2016) Balancing the Economy: The Hand of Government or the Invisible Hand? IEA Discussion Paper 78, IEA: London.
Shah, O (2017) The great town hall property buying spree, The Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Shaoul, J (2005) A critical financial analysis of the Private Finance Initiative: selecting a financing method or allocating economic wealth?, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 16, 4, 441–471.
Sharkey, W W (1982) The Theory of Natural Monopoly, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Sheppard, E (2011) Geographical political economy, Journal of Economic Geography, 11, 2, 319–331.
Sheppard, E (2018) Heterodoxy as orthodoxy: prolegomenon for a geographical political economy. In G L Clark, M P Feldman, M S Gertler and D Wójcik (Eds.) The New Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press: Oxford, 159–178.
Siemiatycki, M (2009) Delivering transportation infrastructure through public–private partnerships: planning concerns, Journal of the American Planning Association, 76, 1, 43–58.
Sims, S, Roberts, J and Wilson, B (2016) Turning South London Orange: Reforming Suburban Rail to Support London’s Next Wave of Growth, Centre for London: London.
Slack, E (2013) International Comparison of Global City Financing: A Report to the London Finance Commission, University of Toronto: Toronto.
Smith, A (1976) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Vol. 2, R H Campbell, A S Skinner, and W B Todd (Eds.), Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Smith, S (2016) Markets spotlight: infrastructure age needs better policy-makers, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Smulian, M (2015) Public property: concrete assets, Public Finance, 24 September,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Sneddon, C (2016) Tayside and Fife local authorities will seek more powers from UK and Scottish governments in Tay Cities deal, The Courier,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Solomon, L D (2009) Promise and Perils of Infrastructure Privatization: The Macquarie Model, Palgrave Macmillan: New York.
South East England Councils (2016) South East England Council’s Consultation Response to “Rail passenger services in London and the South East: a new approach”, South East England Councils: London.
Sparke, M (1998) From geopolitics to geoeconomics: transnational state effects in the borderlands, Geopolitics, 3, 2, 62–98.
Spencer, P (2018) Confronting the power of finance: towards de-financial-isation, The European Financial Review,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Standard and Poor’s (2017) S&P Global Ratings Definitions, Standard and Poor’s: New York.
Steil, B and Litan, R (2008) Financial Statecraft: The Role of Financial Markets in American Foreign Policy, Yale University Press: New Haven, CT.
Stein, S (2018) Capital City: Gentrification and the Rise of the Real Estate State, Verso: New York.
Stone, C N (1989) Regime Politics, Governing Atlanta, 1946–1988, University Press of Kansas: Lawrence, KS.
Storper, M (2014) Governing the large metropolis, Territory, Politics, Governance, 2, 2, 115–134.
Storper, M (2016) The neo-liberal city as idea and reality, Territory, Politics, Governance, 4, 2, 241–263.
Streeck, W (2016) How Capitalism Will End, Verso: London.
Strickland, T (2013) The financialisation of urban development: TaxIncrement Financing in Newcastle upon Tyne, Local Economy, 28, 4, 384–398.
Strickland, T (2016) Funding and financing urban infrastructure: a UK–US comparison, Unpublished PhD thesis, CURDS: Newcastle University.
Studdert, J (2017) A New Statecraft, Fabian Society,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Sutcliffe, A (1998) The urbanization of Europe since 1500. In R A Butlin and R Dodgshon (Eds.) An Historical Geography of Europe, Clarendon Press: Oxford, 300–313.
Symons, T. (2011) Capital Futures, Local Capital Finance Options in an Age of Recovery, New Local Government Network: London.
Tabb, W K (2014) The wider context of austerity urbanism, City, 18, 2, 87–100.
Tarr, J A (1984) The evolution of urban infrastructure in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In R Hanson (Ed.) Perspectives on Urban Infrastructure, National Academy Press: Washington DC, 1–60.
Thatcher, M (2002) Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World, Harper Perennial: London.
The Association of Investment Companies (2016) Autumn Statement: never has the word “infrastructure” been used so frequently,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
The Economist (2015) The neglected wealth of nations,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
The Economist (2016) Election brief: infrastructure – a view from the bridge,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
The Economist (2017a) Globalisation has marginalised many regions in the rich world,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
The Economist (2017b) Does London get a better deal than the regions?,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
The Economist (2018) Britain’s outsourcing model, copied around the world, is in trouble,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
The European Parliament (2009)Economic Recovery Packages in EU Member States, Policy Department Economic and Scientific Policy, The European Parliament: Strasbourg,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
The Foundational Economy Collective (2018) Foundational Economy, Manchester University Press: Manchester.
Thompson, C (2017) There’s a $1 trillion crisis threatening the American way of life as we know it, Business Insider,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Thrower, G (2018) An institutional and spatial consideration of markets for financialised infrastructure, PhD Thesis, CURDS: Newcastle University.
Tighe, C and Jacobs, R (2012) AMP to take 49% stake in Newcastle Airport, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Timmins, N and Giles, C (2011) Private finance costs taxpayer £20bn, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Tomaney, J (2001) The new governance of London, City, 5, 2, 225–248.
Tomaney, J (2007) New Public Management: A Critique, unpublished paper, CURDS: Newcastle University.
Tomaney, J and Marques, P (2013) Evidence, policy, and the politics of regional development: the case of high-speed rail in the United Kingdom, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 31, 3, 414–427.
Tomaney, J, O’Brien, P, Pike A and Jenkins, M (2017) Five Theses on Directly-Elected Metro Mayors, unpublished paper, Bartlett School of Planning, UCL, London.
Tomer, A (2018) A “people first” perspective on infrastructure: delivering access, The Brookings Institution,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Tomer, A., Kane, J and Puentes, R (2017) How historic would a $1tn infrastructure program be?, The Brookings Institution,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
TransportXtra (2017) East West Rail cost “reduced by a third”,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Travers, T (2012) London devo-max is hard to resist, The Evening Standard, 4 April,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Travers, T (2013) Developing a long-term infrastructure plan for London, Presentation, Greater London Authority seminar, December, City Hall: London.
Travers, T (2015) Devolving funding and taxation in the UK: a unique challenge, National Institute Economic Review, 233, 1, 5–13.
Travers, T and Esposito, L (2003) The Decline and Fall of Local Democracy: A History of Local Government Finance, Policy Exchange: London.
Trowers & Hamlins (2013) Public Sector Commercial Local Asset-Backed Vehicles, Trowers & Hamlins: London.
Trump, D (1987) The Art of the Deal, Baker and Taylor: New York.
Tute, R (2018) Profit warnings on the rise in construction and outsourcing sector, Infrastructure Intelligence,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
UK Trade and Investment (2015) Northern Powerhouse Investment Pitchbook, UKTI: London.
United Nations Habitat (2016) World Cities Report 2016: Urbanization and Development Emerging Futures, UN Habitat: Nairobi.
Unterberger, B M (1995) Review: Power Politics and Statecraft: The World According to Kissinger, Reviewed Work: Diplomacy by Henry Kissinger, Reviews in American History, 23, 4, 723–728.
Urban Task Force (1999) Towards an Urban Renaissance, Department of Environment, Transport and Regions: London.
Valler, D (1996) Locality, local economic strategy and private sector involvement: case studies in Norwich and Cardiff, Political Geography, 15, 383–403.
van der Ploeg, C V (2006) New Tools for New Times: A Sourcebook for the Financing, Funding and Delivery of Urban Infrastructure, Canada West Foundation: Calgary.
van der Zwan, N (2014) Making sense of financialization, Socio-Economic Review, 12, 1, 99–129.
Vickerman, R W (1990) Infrastructure and Regional Development, Pion: London.
Waite, D (2016) City dealing in Wales and Scotland: examining the institutional contexts and asymmetric arrangements for policymaking. In D Bailey and L Budd (Eds.) Devolution and the UK Economy, London: Rowman and Littlefield, 213–233.
Waite, D, MacLennan, D and O’Sullivan, T (2013) Emerging city policies: devolution, deals and disorder, Local Economy, 28, 7, 8, 770–785.
Walker, A (2017) Support from London business group for a “Crossrail for the North”, Infrastructure Intelligence,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Walker, R. (2018) Pictures of a Gone City, PM Press: Oakland.
Walsh, R (2018) Idea Exchange: how we secured the Grimsby town deal, Local Government Chronicle,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Ward, A (2017) Hinkley Point nuclear project powers ahead, Financial Times, 21 April,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Ward, C and Swyngedouw, E (2018) Neoliberalisation from the ground up: insurgent capital, regional struggle, and the assetisation of land, Antipode, 50, 4, 1077–1097.
Ward, K (2011) Entrepreneurial urbanism, policy tourism, and the making mobile of policies. In G Bridge and S Watson (Eds.) The New Companion to the City, Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, 726–737.
Ward, K (2013) Speculative urbanism: Redevelopment under austerity conditions, Presentation, Regional Studies Association Winter Conference, November, London.
Ward, K (2017) Policy mobilities, politics and place: the making of financial urban futures, European Urban and Regional Studies, 25, 3, 266–283.
Warren, J (2016) London first, last and everywhere in-between, Bella Caledonia Blog,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Weber, B and Alfen, H W (2010) Infrastructure as an Asset Class. Investment Strategies, Project Finance and PPP, Wiley: Chichester.
Weber, R (2002) Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment, Antipode, 34, 3, 519–540.
Weber, R (2010) Selling city futures: the financialization of urban redevelopment policy, Economic Geography, 86, 3, 251–274.
Weber, R (2015) From Boom to Bubble: How Finance Built the New Chicago, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Wellman, K and Spiller, M (2012) Urban Infrastructure: Finance and Management, Wiley-Blackwell: Chichester.
Welsh Government (2017) Prosperity for All: The National Strategy, Welsh Government: Cardiff.
While, A, Crisp, J, Eadson, W and Gore, T (2016) Major Development Projects: Connecting People in Poverty to Jobs, Joseph Rowntree Foundation: York,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Whiteside, H (2013) Stabilizing privatization: crisis, enabling fields, and public–private partnerships in Canada, Alternate Routes: A Journal of Critical Social Research, 24, 85–108.
Whiteside, H (2018) Austerity as epiphenomenon? Public assets before and beyond 2008, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 11, 3, 409–425.
Whitfield, D (2010) Global Auction of Public Assets: Public Alternatives to the Infrastructure Market and Public Private Partnerships, Spokesman: Nottingham.
Williams, A (2018) Councils buy shopping centres as retailers struggle, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Williams, A and Rovnick, N (2016) The Trump factor: can infrastructure rebuild your investments?, Financial Times,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Wills, J (2016) Locating Localism: Statecraft, Citizenship and Democracy, Policy Press: Bristol.
Wills, J, Datta, K, Evans, Y, Herbert, J, May, J and McIlwaine, C (2010) Global Cities at Work: New Migrant Divisions of Labour, Pluto Press: London.
Wilson, N (2015) The West is paying the price for decades of underinvestment, The Telegraph,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Wilson, P (2018) Liverpool mayor defends city’s £280m loan to Everton for stadium scheme, The Guardian,; Accessed: 29 August 2018.
Wolmar, C (2002) Down the Tube: The Battle for London’s Underground, Arum Press: London.
Wolmar, C (2012) The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How it Changed the City Forever, Allen and Unwin: London.
Wood, A (1998) Making sense of urban entrepreneurialism, Scottish Geographical Magazine, 114, 2, 120–123.
World Bank (2009) World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography, World Bank: Washington, DC.
World Economic Forum (2012) The Global Competitiveness Report 2011–12, World Economic Forum: Davos.
World Economic Forum (2016) The Global Competitiveness Report 2015–16, World Economic Forum: Davos.
Worthington, J (2016) Why infrastructure investment matters: the contribution of civil society, The Academy of Urbanism, -contribution-of-civil-society-john-worthington-aou/; Accessed: 29 August 2018.