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A Practical Guide to Using International Human Rights and Criminal Law Procedures

Connie de la Vega and Alen Mirza

This book is a practical, experience-based guide for advocates seeking remedies for human rights violations through the use of international institutions. Since 1948, when the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, mechanisms for addressing human rights violations have multiplied to include UN Charter based bodies, treaty-based organizations including the international criminal court, and regional institutions. Each mechanism has its own admissibility requirements: accreditation, timeliness of claims, and exhaustion of remedies. For practitioners, the maze of rules and institutions can be difficult to navigate. This book offers step-by-step approaches for maximizing the institutions’ intended effect–promotion of human rights at all levels.
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Index

Connie de la Vega and Alen Mirza

accreditation see participation accreditation
admissibility criteria 173, 175, 17980
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 13940
European Court of Human Rights 121
International Criminal Court (ICC) 146
Organization of American States (OAS), petition system 93
State reports, adjudication of individual communications 713
Advisory Committee, Human Rights Council 345, 40, 41
advisory jurisdiction, Organization of American States (OAS) 103
advisory opinion request, African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights engagement 1356
African Child Rights Committee 1223
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 12232
accreditation procedure 1246
African Union Assembly elections 123
amicus curiae briefs 130
individual complaint system 13032
individual complaint system, ‘serious or massive’ human rights violations 131
individual complaint system, victim’s irreparable harm cases 131
NGO Forum 12930
NGO participation 1246, 127, 12830, 131, 1334, 175
sessions participation 1234, 12830
‘shadow reports’ 127
Special Rapporteurs 128
State reports consideration 1267
substantive rights 124
written communications submission to special mechanisms 128
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights engagement 117, 122, 13243
advisory opinion request 1356
advocacy opportunities 1345
amicable settlements 141
amicus curiae briefs 1423
judges 1323
judgments binding on States 134
Muzerengwa v. Zimbabwe 140
and NGOs 134, 136
Protocol Establishing the African Court 1323, 135, 141, 142
provisional measures and urgent situations 1412, 177
Timan v. Sudan 133
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights engagement, individual complaint submissions 13641
admissibility 13940
compliance 14041
information and statement requirements 1379
merits phase 138, 140
ratione materiae and ratione personae jurisdiction 139
registration 139
seizure 139
territorial jurisdiction 140
American Convention on Human Rights 92, 934
American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man 92, 93
amicable settlements see friendly settlements
amicus curiae briefs
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 130
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 1423
European Court of Human Rights 120
International Criminal Court (ICC) 1656, 185, 186
Annual Assembly of State Parties 145, 169, 186
Antkowiak, T. 93
appeal process
European Court of Human Rights 111, 113
International Criminal Court (ICC) 160, 161
Argentina, political prisoners 1012
Article 15 communications see under International Criminal Court (ICC), victim advocacy
Assembly of States Parties (ASP) attendance and participation, International Criminal Court (ICC) 146, 16971
Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 91
Asylum Access 1617
Baartolomei, M. 102
Babaie, J. 10422
backlog issues, European Court of Human Rights 1067
Beckley, N. 10
Biglieri, E. 91
Buergenthal, T. 102
Cannataci, J. 10
Cantú Rivera, H. 9
case-screening programs, European Court of Human Rights 1078
children
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 60, 65, 69, 76
juveniles in adult prisons, Organization of American States (OAS) 99
Resolution on the Rights of the Child 910
civil society coalitions, European Court of Human Rights, remedies strategy 120, 121
see also NGOs
class (group) representation, International Criminal Court (ICC) 152
Commission on Human Rights 7, 34, 35, 378
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) 40, 457, 175
Communications Procedure 456
NGO participation 467
UN Women participation encouragement 467
see also Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) 60, 62, 65, 67, 69, 76, 79
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 60, 65, 69, 78, 79, 8081
Committee on Enforced Disappearances (CED) 60, 65, 69, 76, 7980, 823
Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW) 60, 65, 69
compensation or just satisfaction claims, European Court of Human Rights 113, 118
complaints
communications/complaint procedure, Human Rights Council 358
individual complaint submissions, African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights see African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights engagement, individual complaint submissions
individual complaint system, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 13032
International Labour Organization (ILO) procedure 54
complementarity principle, International Criminal Court (ICC) 146
confidentiality 1734, 1778, 1823
anonymity requests, treaty-based procedures, State reports 76
Human Rights Council 378, 1778
International Criminal Court (ICC) 155, 164
Organization of American States (OAS), petition system 93, 1778
treaty-based procedures 77, 82, 88
UNESCO 55
‘contentious jurisdiction’ acceptance, Organization of American States (OAS), petition system 956
Convention Against Torture (CAT) 60, 65, 69, 76
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 45, 60, 65, 67, 69, 76, 77
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 13, 60, 65, 69, 76
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) 60, 65, 69, 76
de la Vega, C. 1, 5, 40, 55
De Pauw, M. 41
deadlines, treaty-based procedures, State reports 64
see also time limits
death penalty 8, 13, 176
digital privacy 10, 99
Direct Victim Advocacy 147
‘do no harm’ principle, International Criminal Court (ICC) 168
see also harm
dual status victims, International Criminal Court (ICC), victim advocacy 150
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 6, 7, 10, 29, 356, 40, 42, 4459
accreditation 568
accreditation, consultative status review 578
accreditation, NGO accreditation 568
outcome documents 47, 50
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Permanent Forum on Indigenous Rights 4752
accreditation 49
Global Indigenous Caucus 52
Inter-Agency Support Group (IASG) 5051
membership 489
oral statements 512
outcome report 5051
‘portfolio system’ 49
Secretariat 49
work programme 4950
written statements and reports 52
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), specialized agencies 536
Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 55
emergency measures, Organization of American States (OAS), petition system 94
see also urgent situations
erasing the consequences of violation, European Court of Human Rights, remedies strategy 11819
Eritrea, Human Rights Commission report 38
EU, Court of Justice of the European Union
as alternative venue 1212
Federaal agentschap voor de opvang van asielzoekers v. Saciri 122
European Court of Human Rights 10422
admissibility criteria 121
appeal process 111, 113
backlog issues 1067
Council of Europe role 12021
as court of last resort 105
grassroots activism and civil society advocacy campaigns 121
Greece, rights of religious and ethnic minorities 106
Italy, rights of immigrants and asylum seekers 106
present-day conditions interpretation 104
public interest litigation and sharing process 1056
Roma school segregation in Eastern Europe 106
third-party interventions 11718
third-party interventions, cases on the merits 11718
and Universal Declaration of Human Rights 104
European Court of Human Rights, cases
Al-Skeini and Others v. UK 110
Cecchetti v. San Marino 116
D H and Others v. Czech Republic 106
Dudgeon v. UK 109
Gagiu v. Romania 110
Giuran v. Romania 115
Gorraiz Lizarraga and Others v. Spain 109
Ionescu v. Romania 116
Ireland v. United Kingdom 104
Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines v. Turkey 108
Izci v. Turkey 119
Kaya and Polat v. Turkey 108
Kovalenko v. Belarus 116
Loizidou v. Turkey (Preliminary Objections) 104
Luchaninova v. Ukraine 114
Oferta Plus SRL v. Moldova 110
Oršuš and Others v. Croatia 106
Peers v. Greece 110
Şirketi v. Ireland 104
Soering v. UK 109
Turs v. Servia 108
Ukraine-Tyumen v. Ukraine 108
Veriter v. France 111
Zakharov v. Russia 109
Zehentner v. Austria 108
Živić v. Serbia 115
European Court of Human Rights, individual complaint system 10713
application form requirements 11112
case-screening programs 1078
and Chambers of the European Court 11213
compensation or ‘just satisfaction’ claims 113
exhaustion of resources 11011
language use 111, 116, 1767
pilot-judgment procedure and repetitive cases 112
ratione materiae and ratione personae jurisdiction 109
remedies within the respondent State 111
right to file without hindrance 110
State-owned company’s institutional and operational independence 108
territorial scope 110
victim of violation qualification 1089
European Court of Human Rights, protocol system and impact on work of litigators 11417
as professional peer-review 114
Protocol 15 and principle of subsidiarity 10422
Protocol 15 and time-limits 116
Protocol 16 and advisory opinions 117
violation of a right and ‘significant disadvantage’ criterion 11416
European Court of Human Rights, remedies strategy 11820
advocacy and case planning relevance 11920
civil society coalitions 120
erasing the consequences of the violation 11819
just satisfaction 118
likelihood of recurrence 119
ordering government to adopt general measures to prevent that situation from arising again 119
unilateral declarations by losing State of the wrong committed 119
evidence gathering expertise, International Criminal Court (ICC) 1689
evidence presentation, new, International Criminal Court (ICC) 158
expectation clarification, International Criminal Court (ICC) 148
Expert Mechanism forums see Human Rights Council, Expert Mechanism forums
external counsel, International Criminal Court (ICC) 15053, 186
fact investigation procedures, Human Rights Council 424
see also information gathering
Fadem, L. 14471
Ferro Ribeiro, S. 169
fieldwork and serving as an ‘intermediary’, International Criminal Court (ICC) 1669
Finland, rights of indigenous peoples 26
first-hand accounts, treaty-based procedures 77
follow-up procedure
Organization of American States (OAS), petition system 945
treaty-based procedures, State reports 678, 745
Forum on Business and Human Rights 23, 30, 32, 33, 41, 175
Forum on Minority Issues 23, 2730
friendly settlements
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 141
Organization of American States (OAS), petition system 934
treaty-based procedures, State reports 756
Funk, T. 148
General Comments 3, 61, 63, 73, 789, 123, 174, 1767
Giffard, C. 20
Global Indigenous Caucus 52
see also indigenous peoples
Gonza, A. 93, 95
government-organized NGOs (GONGOs) 14
see also NGOs
Greece, rights of religious and ethnic minorities 106
group representation, International Criminal Court (ICC) 152
harm
‘do no harm’ principle, International Criminal Court (ICC) 168
documentation, International Criminal Court (ICC) 162
victim’s irreparable harm, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 131
Haynes, P. 158
Hirst, M. 149
Hrle, M. 20
Human Rights Commission, Celis Lauréano v. Peru 72
Human Rights Council 6, 744, 65, 69
Advisory Committee 345, 40, 41
Advisory Committee, restrictions 35
Advisory Committee, treaty drafting 41
communications/complaint procedure 358
communications/complaint procedure, confidentiality 378, 1778
communications/complaint procedure, screening process 37
death penalty discussion 8
digital privacy 10
fact investigation procedures 424
fact investigation procedures, Commissions of Inquiry (COIs) and Fact-finding Missions (FFMs) 423
fact investigation procedures, NGO participation 434
General Debate 11
government-organized NGOs (GONGOs) 14
Interactive Dialogues (IDs) 1112, 24, 289, 31
language monitoring 1314
Main Sessions 812
NGO participation 2, 10, 11, 12, 1420, 245, 29, 33, 34, 35, 39, 175
oral statements 11
outcome documents 12, 42
refugees and asylum seekers 2021
resolution drafting sessions 1214
Resolution on the Rights of the Child 910
right to privacy 10
Special Fund for the Participation of Civil Society 34
Special Procedures mechanisms 1112, 1923
Special Procedures mechanisms, urgent appeal procedures 213, 40, 177
Special Rapporteurs 20, 223, 24, 278, 478
special sessions 3840
special sessions, registration 3940
special sessions, urgent debates 40, 177
theme-based resolutions 9, 13
treaty drafting 4041
treaty drafting, GA participation 41
treaty drafting, NGO participation 41
treaty drafting, protection of seniors’ rights 41
Universal Periodic Review (UPR) 7, 89, 13, 1419
Working Groups 20, 367, 4041
world conferences 42
written statement submission 11
Human Rights Council, Expert Mechanism forums 20, 2334
Business and Human Rights 323
Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law 334
Minority Issues 279
Rights of Indigenous Peoples (EMRIP) 247, 489
Rights of Indigenous Peoples (EMRIP), country engagement missions 267
Social Forum 2932
Social Forum, access barriers 30
Social Forum, criticisms of 32
Social Forum, themes 31
human rights violations, mechanisms for addressing 17884
immigrant rights 2021, 99, 106
Asylum Access 1617
Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW) 60, 65, 69
impartiality element, International Criminal Court (ICC) 1556
indigence proof, International Criminal Court (ICC) 153
indigenous peoples
Expert Mechanism Forums, Rights of Indigenous Peoples (EMRIP) 247, 489
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Rights see Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Permanent Forum on Indigenous Rights
individual communications, treaty-based procedures see treaty-based procedures, State reports, adjudication of individual communications
individual complaint system
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights see African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights engagement, submissions
European Court of Human Rights see European Court of Human Rights, individual complaint system
Organization of American States (OAS), see Organization of American States (OAS), petition system 936
treaty-based procedures, see treaty-based procedures, adjudication of individual communications 6876
information gathering
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights engagement, individual complaint submissions 1379
fact investigation procedures, Human Rights Council 424
International Criminal Court (ICC), working outside the court 168
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) 92
inter-state complaints, Organization of American States (OAS), petition system 95
Interactive Dialogues (IDs), Human Rights Council 1112, 24, 289, 31
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearances (CED) 60, 80, 90
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 60, 89
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 10, 59, 89
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 59, 89
International Criminal Court (ICC) 2, 14471, 1846
admissibility criteria 146
multi-stage and multi-year timeline 146, 185
principle of complementarity 146
ratification 145
Security Council references 145
subject-matter jurisdiction 1456
International Criminal Court (ICC), cases
Prosecutor v. al-Mahdi 149, 1623
Prosecutor v. Banda Abakaer Nourain 157, 159
Prosecutor v. Blé Goudé 150
Prosecutor v. Chui 155, 159, 161
Prosecutor v. Gbagbo 149, 159, 160
Prosecutor v. Gbago 152
Prosecutor v. Gombo 158
Prosecutor v. Katanga 159, 160, 162, 163, 168
Prosecutor v. Lubanga Dyilo 150, 1578, 159, 16061, 162, 163
Prosecutor v. Ongwen 150, 153, 159
Prosecutor v. Ruto 150, 152, 160
Prosecutor v. Ruto, Kosgey & Sang 152
International Criminal Court (ICC), victim advocacy 145, 14766
amicus curiae briefs 1656, 185, 186
client’s motivations, clarification of 148
court proceedings contribution and Article 15 communications 1635
court proceedings contribution and Article 15 communications, and confidentiality 164
court proceedings contribution and Article 15 communications, public-facing 164
court proceedings contribution and Article 15 communications, and self-promotion 165
directly participating in and contributing to pre-trial and trial 1534
expectation clarification 148
formal victim status 14950
formal victim status, multiple accused 150
formal victim status, NGO participation 150
formal victim status, witness testifications and ‘dual status’ victims 150
group representation 152
representation of individual victims versus representing a class 152
risk factors 148
victim contact, importance of 148
victims’ external counsel and assistants 15053, 186
victims’ external counsel and assistants, remuneration 1523
victims’ external counsel and assistants, remuneration, victim’s indigence proof 153
working on behalf of victims 1613
working on behalf of victims, documentation of harm 162
working on behalf of victims, reparations 1613
working on behalf of victims, Trust Fund for Victims 161
International Criminal Court (ICC), victim advocacy, victim participation at trial 15761
appealing after conviction 161
interlocutory appeals, filing 160
legal arguments, presentation of 159
new evidence presentation 158
opening and closing statements 1578
sentencing contribution 16061
witness examination 1589
International Criminal Court (ICC), victim advocacy, victim participation before the trial 1547
challenging the Prosecutor’s decision not to investigate or prosecute 156
confirmation hearing participation 1567
impartiality element 1556
pre-investigation 1545
victim confidentiality 155
International Criminal Court (ICC), working outside the court 16671
Assembly of States Parties attendance and participation 146, 16971
Assembly of States Parties attendance and participation, accreditation to attend 170
Assembly of States Parties attendance and participation, hosting side events 17071
‘do no harm’ principle 168
evidence gathering expertise 1689
fieldwork and serving as an ‘intermediary’ 1669
information gathering 168
investigative best practices 169
opportunities 1678
international human rights procedures
Charter-based procedures 6, 56
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) see Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
General Assembly (GA) 67
Human Rights Council see Human Rights Council
treaty-based procedures see treaty-based procedures
International Labour Organization (ILO) 534
International Labour Organization (ILO), Committee of Experts 54
International Labour Organization (ILO), complaints procedure 54
investigative best practices, International Criminal Court (ICC) 169
Iraq
alleged violations of international human rights law 39
CERD’s Early Warning and Urgent Action Decision 81
Italy, rights of immigrants and asylum seekers 106
just satisfaction claims, European Court of Human Rights 112, 113, 118
juveniles in adult prisons, Organization of American States (OAS) 99
see also children
Kiza, E. 148
language use
European Court of Human Rights 111, 116, 1767
Human Rights Council 1314
Liberia, Human Rights Commission report 378
merits consideration
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 138, 140
European Court of Human Rights 11718
treaty-based procedures, State reports 734
Mexico
rights of indigenous peoples 26
unsolved abductions, rapes and murders of women, Chihuahua 77
Minority Issues Forum, Human Rights Council 279
motivations, clarification of client’s, International Criminal Court (ICC) 148
multiple accused, International Criminal Court (ICC) 150
Naim, M. 14
NGO participation 2, 10
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 1246, 127, 12830, 12930, 131, 1334, 175
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 134, 136
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 568
fact investigation procedures, Human Rights Council 434
government-organized NGOs (GONGOs) 14
Human Rights Council 2, 10, 11, 12, 1420, 245, 29, 33, 34, 35, 39, 41, 175
International Criminal Court (ICC), victim advocacy 150
Organization of American States (OAS) 923, 1023
treaty-based procedures, State reports, country review process 67, 68
see also civil society
Nolan, A. 20
North Korea (DPRK), crimes against humanity Commission of Inquiry (COI) 43, 103
off-site investigations, Organization of American States (OAS), country studies 1023
on-site investigations, Organization of American States (OAS) see Organization of American States (OAS), country studies and on-site investigations
oral interventions from stakeholders, treaty-based procedures 79
oral statements
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Permanent Forum on Indigenous Rights 512
Human Rights Council 11
Organization of American States (OAS) 92103
advisory jurisdiction 103
American Convention on Human Rights 92, 934
American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man 92, 93
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) 92
NGO and civil society participation 923
Organization of American States (OAS), country studies and on-site investigations 1013
Argentina and political prisoners 1012
NGO participation 1023
off-site fact-finding 1023
steps taken prior to the visits 102
Organization of American States (OAS), Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR) 92, 94, 956, 103, 117
N I Sequoyah v. United States 93
Nicaragua v. Costa Rica 95
Saramaka People v. Suriname 11617
Organization of American States (OAS), petition system 936
admissibility ruling 93
confidentiality 93, 1778
‘contentious jurisdiction’ acceptance 956
emergency measures 94
follow-up measures 945
friendly settlements 934
inter-state complaints 95
precautionary measures 94
preliminary report and recommendations 94
Organization of American States (OAS), thematic hearings 96101
advantages of 978
government obligations and interpretations 100
immigrant detention and deportation hearing 99
juveniles in adult prisons 99
limited documentation of proceedings and outcomes 101
multiple perspectives, opportunities for 98
persistent rights concerns 99
police use of force hearing 98
privacy rights in the digital age 99
solitary confinement hearing 98
transnational cross-cutting coalitions 99100
US Government participation concerns 100101
outcome reports 173, 178
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 47, 50
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Permanent Forum on Indigenous Rights 5051, 52
Human Rights Council 12, 42
International Criminal Court (ICC) 1578, 1834, 185
State reports see treaty-based procedures, State reports
treaty-based procedures 66
treaty-based procedures, national preventive mechanisms and conducting country visits (under the SPT) 84, 878
written statements see written statements
see also individual courts and court cases
Palestine, alleged violations of international human rights law 39
Palmer, E. 165
Paoletti, S. 97
participation
NGO see NGO participation
sessions participation, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 1234, 12830
sessions participation, Human Rights Council see under Human Rights Council
Special Rapporteur see Special Rapporteur participation
participation accreditation
Assembly of States Parties, accreditation to attend 170
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 568
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Permanent Forum on Indigenous Rights 49
participation accreditation, treaty-based procedures 62
treaty-based procedures 62
Pasqualucci, J. 95
peer-review, European Court of Human Rights, protocol system 114
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Rights 45, 47
persistent rights concerns, Organization of American States (OAS) 99
petition system
Organization of American States (OAS) see Organization of American States (OAS), petition system
UNESCO 556
Piccone, T. 43
pilot-judgment procedure and repetitive cases, European Court of Human Rights 112
Pitts, J. 30, 37
Poffé, L. 41
police use of force hearing, Organization of American States (OAS) 98
portfolio system, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Permanent Forum on Indigenous Rights 49
Prati, G. 91
precautionary measures 94, 173, 181
preventive mechanisms, treaty-based procedures see treaty-based procedures, national preventive mechanisms and conducting country visits (under the SPT)
privacy rights 10, 99
protocol system
European Court of Human Rights see European Court of Human Rights, protocol system and impact on work of litigators
human rights treaties and their protocols, treaty-based procedures 8990
public interest litigation and sharing process, European Court of Human Rights 1056
public-facing communications, International Criminal Court (ICC) 164
Rabiee, M. 22
ratione materiae and ratione personae jurisdiction
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 139
European Court of Human Rights, individual complaint system 109
International Criminal Court (ICC) 1456
recurrence, likelihood of violation, European Court of Human Rights 119
refugees and immigrant rights see immigrant rights
regional human rights system see African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights; European Court of Human Rights; Organization of American States (OAS)
remedies strategy, European Court of Human Rights see European Court of Human Rights, remedies strategy
remuneration, external counsel and assistants, International Criminal Court (ICC) 1523
reparations, International Criminal Court (ICC) 1613
repetitive cases, pilot-judgment procedure, European Court of Human Rights 112
reprisals 184
resolution drafting sessions, Human Rights Council 1214
Richardson, L. 32
risk factors
International Criminal Court (ICC) 148
treaty-based procedures, national preventive mechanisms and conducting country visits (under the SPT) 84
Rodley, N. 14
Roma school segregation in Eastern Europe 106
screening process, communications/complaint procedure, Human Rights Council 37
Security Council references, International Criminal Court (ICC) 145
seizure, African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 139
self-promotion, International Criminal Court (ICC) 165
seniors’ rights protection 41
sentencing contribution, International Criminal Court (ICC), victim participation at trial 16061
sessions participation
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 1234, 12830
Human Rights Council see under Human Rights Council
‘shadow reports’, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 127
Social Forum, Human Rights Council, Expert Mechanism forums 2932
solitary confinement hearing, Organization of American States (OAS) 98
Special Fund for the Participation of Civil Society, Human Rights Council 34
special mechanisms, written communications submission, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 128
Special Procedures mechanisms, Human Rights Council 1112, 1923
Special Rapporteur participation
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 128
Human Rights Council 20, 223, 24, 278, 478
treaty-based procedures, State reports 71, 745
special sessions, Human Rights Council 3840
specialized agencies 6, 45, 53, 80
see also International Labour Organization (ILO); UNESCO
State-owned company’s institutional and operational independence, European Court of Human Rights 108
Sub-Commission on Promotion and Protection of Human Rights 34, 356, 40
Subcommittee on the Prevention of Torture (SPT) see treaty-based procedures, national preventive mechanisms and conducting country visits (under the SPT)
subject-matter (ratione materiae) jurisdiction see ratione materiae and ratione personae jurisdiction
subsidiarity principle, European Court of Human Rights 10422
Syria, crimes against humanity Commission of Inquiry (COI) 44
temporal (ratione temporis) jurisdiction see ratione materiae and ratione personae jurisdiction
Thailand, urban refugees and asylum seekers 1618
thematic hearings, Organization of American States (OAS) see Organization of American States (OAS), thematic hearings
theme-based resolutions, Human Rights Council 9, 13
third-party interventions, European Court of Human Rights 11718
Tibori-Szabó, K. 149
time limits
admissibility consideration, treaty-based procedures, State reports 73, 74
deadlines, treaty-based procedures, State reports 64
multi-stage and multi-year timeline, International Criminal Court (ICC) 146, 185
Protocol 15, European Court of Human Rights 116
transnational cross-cutting coalitions, Organization of American States (OAS) 99100
treaty drafting, Human Rights Council 4041
treaty-based procedures 5988
composition and procedures of treaty bodies 6061, 62
conducting inquiries 767
confidentiality 77
engagement with treaty bodies 5962
first-hand accounts 77
general comments, issuing 789
human rights treaties and their protocols 8990
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 59, 89
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 59, 89
oral interventions from stakeholders 79
outcome documents 66
participation accreditation 62
and UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 7071, 73, 76
treaty-based procedures, early warning and urgent action procedures 7983
confidentiality 82
effectiveness 81
interim protective measures 823
procedures under Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 60, 65, 69, 78, 79, 8081
procedures under Committee on Enforced Disappearances (CED) 60, 65, 69, 76, 7980, 823
treaty-based procedures, national preventive mechanisms and conducting country visits (under the SPT) 838
confidentiality 88
pattern and risk identification 84
report findings 84, 878
rights to visit 858
selection list 856
structure and composition 845
visit duration 87
visit preparation 867
treaty-based procedures, State reports
combined reports and overdue periodic State reports 64
Common Core Documents 63
consideration of 638
deadlines 64
UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture (SPT) exception 63
treaty-based procedures, State reports, adjudication of individual communications 6876
admissibility consideration 713
admissibility consideration, response time limits 73
anonymity requests 76
communication, lodging and form 6970
consideration on merits 734
follow-up on recommendations 745
interim measures and friendly settlements 756
pre-screen review and registration 7071
review procedures 7071, 74
Special Rapporteur participation 71, 745
time limits 73, 74
treaty-based procedures, State reports, country review process 648
alternative/shadow reports 656
concluding observations and recommendations 67
follow-up procedure 678
format 667
List of Issues (LOI) development 646
NGO briefings 67, 68
trial participation see International Criminal Court (ICC), victim advocacy, victim participation at trial; International Criminal Court (ICC), victim advocacy, victim participation before the trial
Trust Fund for Victims, International Criminal Court (ICC) 161
UN Charter-based procedures see Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Human Rights Council
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) 1415, 1721, 25, 33, 34, 39, 42
and treaty-based procedures 626, 6873, 76
UN Open Ended Working Group on Ageing (OEWGA) 41
UN Women 467
UN World Conference on Women 42
UNESCO 546
UNESCO, confidentiality 55
UNESCO, petitions 556
unilateral declarations by losing State of wrong committed, European Court of Human Rights 119
Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 55
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 5, 104
Universal Periodic Review (UPR), Human Rights Council 7, 89, 13, 1419
urgent situations 173, 177, 1812
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 1412, 177
Organization of American States (OAS) 94
Special Procedures mechanisms, urgent appeal procedures, Human Rights Council 213, 40, 177
special sessions, Human Rights Council 40, 177
treaty-based see treaty-based procedures, early warning and urgent action procedures
US
death penalty for offenders under the age of 18 13, 176
extreme poverty, migrant workers and their families 223
government participation concerns, and Organization of American States (OAS) 100101
Graham v. Florida 13
Hoffman Plastic Compounds v. National Labor Relations Board 103
juvenile life without parole 16
Minnesota Lawyers International Human Rights Committee 103
Rivero et al. v. Montgomery County 23
Roper v. Simmons 13, 176
Sullivan v. Florida 13
Van der Straten Ponthoz, D. 169
victim advocacy, International Criminal Court (ICC) see International Criminal Court (ICC), victim advocacy
victim of violation qualification, European Court of Human Rights 1089
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action 42
Viljoen, F. 135
violation of a right and ‘significant disadvantage’ criterion, European Court of Human Rights 11416
visits, treaty-based procedures see treaty-based procedures, national preventive mechanisms and conducting country visits (under the SPT)
Voeten, E. 105
Wachira, G. 133, 135
Weissbrodt, D. 1, 5, 21, 30, 37, 55, 102
Williams, S. 165
Wilson, R. 100
witness examination, International Criminal Court (ICC) 1589
witness testifications and ‘dual status’ victims, International Criminal Court (ICC) 150
women
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) see Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 45, 60, 65, 67, 69, 76, 77
UN Women 467
UN World Conference on Women 42
Woolaver, H. 166
Working Groups, Human Rights Council 20, 367, 4041
working outside the court see International Criminal Court (ICC), working outside the court
written statements
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 128
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Permanent Forum on Indigenous Rights 52
Human Rights Council 11
see also outcome reports
Zamemi, N. 99