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Human Rights, Export Credits and Development Cooperation

Accountability for Bilateral Agencies

Barbara Linder

This book analyses to what extent the current human rights system allows affected individuals to claim accountability for human rights violations resulting from bilateral development and export credit agency supported undertakings. The author explores three legal pathways: host state responsibility, home state responsibility and corporate responsibility. The book concludes with recommendations on how to strengthen human rights accountability and improve access to justice for adversely affected individuals. It will be of great interest to those researching the intersection between human rights, development cooperation, and investment.
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Chapter 2: Human rights in official export credits

Barbara Linder


This chapter will take a closer look at the context and history of official export credit regulation. Social and human rights concerns have only very recently entered the realm of the official export credit business. In contrast to development agencies, official export credit agencies (ECAs) strongly compete with each other. This holds particularly true for ECAs of OECD and non-OECD countries. The call for raising human rights standards in OECD countries has therefore frequently been answered with the economic objection that it might impair ECAs’ competitiveness on the international market. On the basis of a case study in Turkey this chapter will illustrate the difficulties to ensure the respect of environmental, social and human rights standards against political and economic interests.

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