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The Infrastructured State

Territoriality and the National Infrastructure System

Colin Turner

At the core of the logic of this book is that states engage in infrastructuring as a means of securing and enhancing their territoriality. By positioning infrastructure as a system, there is a presumption that all infrastructures exhibit some degree of mutual dependence. As such, a National Infrastructure System (NIS) is not simply about conventional conceptions of infrastructure based on those that support economic activity (i.e. energy, transport and information) but also about broader hard and soft structures that both enable and are supported by the aforementioned economic infrastructures. Consequently, this book offers an ambitious holistic view on the form of NIS arguing that the infrastructural mandate requires a conception of the state that encapsulates themes from both the competition and the welfare states in infrastructure provision.
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Index

Colin Turner

adaptation 20, 21

actual 90

barriers to 22

environmental impacts of 22

of infrastructure 5

see also adaptive tensions

adaptive tensions 16, 20, 31, 36, 45–6, 53–4, 73, 74, 76, 101, 184

ageing 120–21

climate change 119

within NEI 90

population 117–18

within water infrastructure systems 116–17

ageing 120–21

Agénor, P.R. 17

air connectivity 38

airport infrastructure 43, 51

animal waste 99

aviation infrastructure 33, 38, 41, 53

‘big data’ economy 67–8

biodiversity 115

biofuels 87, 112

blue infrastructure 123

‘bottom-up’ strategies 10

broadband

access 182

infrastructure 67, 70, 180

penetration 64–5, 70–71

technologies 179

users 64–6

capitalist strategies 3

capital transport systems 46

centralisation 2, 87, 97

centralised grid 96–8

circulatory water infrastructure system 106–7, 181

territoriality and water infrastructure 110–16

waste water management systems 109–10

water supply system 107–9

civic infrastructure 186

provision of 161

civil disobedience/discontent 74

civil society 43–4

climate change 119

consequences of 184

threat of 123–4

colocation centres 68

communal centres 68

communal facilities 154

communication

infrastructures 178, 180

systems 182

technologies 61–2

community

activities 156

cohesion 155

interaction and integration of 159

resilience 155, 158, 164–5, 186

resources, erosion of 155

competitive tendering, use of 71

conceptualisation 130

contemporary international system 1, 9

contemporary territorial strategy 31

cooking fuels 94–5

co-operation, levels of 159

corporate connectivity 43–4

corruption-free planning system 135

critical infrastructure systems 155

criticality 8, 12, 15, 140, 173

and policy support 143–5

cyber sovereignty, methods for asserting 74, 75

cyber territory 74

data hubs 68, 69

decentralised generation 98

decentralised systems 123

dedicated infrastructure 61

demographic changes 20–21

de-territorialisation 178

digital divide 71

distinct systems 61–2

distributed generation 89, 96–8

distribution systems 87, 107–8, 115

diverse funding 140–42

domestic air infrastructure 38–9

domestic cable infrastructure 182

domestic demand, oscillations of 181

domestic energy supply 82

domestic systems 37

economic activity, agglomerations of 181

economic development 16

economic growth 17, 20, 38, 67, 94, 112, 159, 163

economic inclusion 66

economic infrastructure 11, 152, 154–5, 172, 178

economic security 138

economic systems 136

ecosystems 115

electricity 88, 95

infrastructure 96

production of 113

supply 88–9

system 87, 97

universality in 96

urban access to 95–6

electric vehicles 20

embedded globality of NEI 82

embedded infrastructure 5–6

emergent water security, infrastructural challenges of 121–4

employment, forms of 113

enabling infrastructures 11

endogenous growth theory 17

end-to-end connections 178

energy

equity 95

flows, global system of 181

independence 83

production, global system of 82

secondary form of 89

security 91–4

socio-technical infrastructures of 179

storage, large-scale 93–4

supply 100

sustainability 98–101

sustainable forms of 94

systems, disaggregation of 100–101

trilemma 89–91

and water systems, territorial extensiveness in 182

energy infrastructure 184

downstream systems of 83

form and nature of 90

energy poverty 94–8

entrepreneurship 159

environmental degradation 19–20

environmental impacts of adaptation 22

environmental injustice 120

environmental sensitivity 49

environmental threat 109

equity, issues of 111

exceptionalism of infrastructure 6

extensity 181

extensive territorial systems, development of 183

extraterritorial systems 181

fixed broadband access 64–5

fixed line access 63

fixed line networks 64

flood prevention 106

flow stimulation 185

food products 121–2

Foucauldian governmentality 35

fragmentation 76

process of 74, 76

freshwater resources, depletion of 121

fuel territorial insecurity 116

gas storage infrastructure 92–3

global electricity production 87–8

global energy 87, 91, 93, 99, 101

consumption 87–8

system 91

global financial crisis 45–6, 52

global information architecture 184

globalisation 4, 8, 17, 36, 46–7

globality 16, 21, 54, 74, 175

global logistical channels 37

global system of states 172

governmentality 35, 156

green infrastructure 20, 123

grey infrastructure 122–3

grid infrastructure 89, 98

groundwater 116, 119, 121–2

extraction with Libya 121

hard infrastructure systems 136, 137

‘hiding’ infrastructure 6

high-density road systems 42

high-speed rail 41, 43

households

penetration for 66

systems 182–3

human capability, development of 155

human capital 162, 186

conduits of 155–6

narrative of 163

in resilience 165

salience of 162

and social infrastructure 155, 161–3

strategies 165

human welfare 163–4

hydrocarbons 83, 100

hyper-connectivity 67

immature circulatory systems of water 181

individual sanitary units 109

industrialisation 18

informal collection 111

informal insurance 164

informal learning process 186

information economy 67–9

information infrastructure 61–3, 68, 138, 180, 182, 184

information society 70–72

information socio-economy 67–72

infrastructural capacity 179–81

themes of 180

infrastructural enablement 185–6

infrastructural innovation 67

infrastructural mandate 2, 5, 12, 64–5, 132, 134, 136

components of 12

elements of 131

and soft infrastructure 133

infrastructural penetration 181–3

notion of 181–2

infrastructural power 181

infrastructural pressures 119

infrastructural reliability 175–9

infrastructural resilience 186

infrastructural violence 111, 154

themes of 181–2

infrastructure

access to 13–14

adaptability 183–5

hydrocarbons 172

criticality of 173

death spiral 120–21

development, life cycle of 142

finance 141

forms of 184

gap 51–4

highlights, systemic nature of 6

importance of 172

planning for 135

process of 1

projects 140

quality 178

sharing 69

socio-economic benefits of 182

vs. suprastructure 7

‘taken for grantedness’ of 132

and territoriality 2–3

infrastructured state 172

territorial state and 172–5

infrastructure investment 45–6, 69

political institutions to 134

infrastructure mandate 117

integrative aspect of 16–17

infrastructure planning 134–5

infrastructure systems 19, 120, 123, 132, 179

barriers to 22, 23

challenges upon 183

development of 134

facets of 5

interaction with 132–3

inter-territorial nature of 135–6

‘invisibility’ of 132

localised 123–4

‘mature’ and highly developed 172

ownership and control of 8

potential for 175

inland transport infrastructure 35–6

inland waterway systems 36

innovation 159

innovation, risk and costs of 22

institutional checks and balances 131

institutional framework 131

institutional systems 131–2

internal energy resources 122

internal gas infrastructure system 86

internal (domestic) oil pipelines 85

internal security 14, 131, 138

international aquifer systems 116

international connectivity 37

international freight 36–7

international labour flows 138

international political economy 3–4

international resilience systems 165

international river systems 116

international transit routes 36

internet balkanisation 74

internet of things (IoT) 67, 70

internet users 76

inter-state flows, governance of 136–9

intra-community trust 156

intra-territorial connectivity 31–2

intra-territorial interconnection 180

investment, financial pressure for 88

investment, simple cost of 22

IoT see internet of things (IoT)

large-scale-based water 182

large-scale technical systems 182

Legatum Institute’s Prosperity Index 160

linking social capital 157

Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) 86, 87, 93, 101

‘manufactured’ infrastructures 109

maritime infrastructure 37, 43, 54

market-based systems of delivery 184

McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) 53

mega ships 41, 50

MGI see McKinsey Global Institute (MGI)

micro grid 97

mini grid 97–8

mobile access technologies 182

mobile broadband 64–5

mobile telephony 64

modernity 82–3

modern renewables 99

spread of 100

modular infrastructure 97

monitoring system 138

‘more is better’ approach 179

multi-scalar filtering 138

multi-scalar transportation infrastructure system 32, 33

national broadband strategies 65–6, 71

national economy, changes to 20

national electricity systems 95

national energy grids 93

national energy infrastructure (NEI) system 82

adaptive tensions within 89–90

aspects of 83

development of 82–3

diagrammatic representation of 83–4

embeddedness of 91–2

energy poverty 94–8

energy security 91–4

energy sustainability 98–101

and energy trilemma 89–91

nature of energy infrastructure 82–4

primary 84–7

resilience 93

secondary 87–9

‘sustainable’ 100

national energy strategies 93–4

national information infrastructure (NII) 61, 62

broadband/internet users 64–6

development of 61–3

fixed line access 63

form and nature of 61–2

information economy 67–9

information society 70–72

and information socio-economy 67–72

mobile telephony 64

state power and 72–6

national infrastructure systems (NISs) 2, 9, 10, 130, 131, 136, 156, 165, 181

ability of 22

academic examination of 152

analysis 173

‘black box’ of 132

changes to national economy 20

characteristics to 175

complexity of 175

components of 11, 134, 145, 172–4, 176–8

contemporary analysis of 17

control 173

core facets of 12–13

demographic changes 20–21

development of 18, 132, 135, 140, 161–2, 175, 185

economic component of 155

elements of 139

globality 21

‘human’ dimensions of 155–6

institutional systems at 136–7

interactions within 156, 173

market failure in 140

natural environmental changes 21

operation of 131, 132

passive element in 153

political consensus for 135

polycentric 134

public policy/state strategy 21–2

role in 186

security 173

shifting context of 20–22

socio-economic impact of 186

soft infrastructural component of 132, 135

specific components of 183

sustainability 175

territorial functions 173

utilisation of 178

national pipeline systems 86

national rail systems 36

national road network 42

national transportation infrastructure (NTI) 31–3

component of 33

development and maturity of 33

environment 49–50

external facing 36–9

globalisation 46–7

growth 45–6

infrastructure 51–4

inland transport infrastructure 35–6

notion of quality 39–42

quantity 42–3

technology 50–51

universality 43–4

urbanisation 47–8

national water infrastructure system (NWIS) 106, 120

adaptive tensions, within water infrastructure systems see adaptive tensions

ageing of 120

circular nature of 110

circulatory 107–17

components of 34–5, 107, 108

conceptualising 110–11

effective circular 113–14

effective use of 112

enablement of 123

function of 34–5, 112

infrastructural challenges of emergent water security 121–4

role of state and 111

state power in 111

sustainability within 114–15

sustenance of 110–11

territorial dimensions of 106

nationhood 82–3

natural environmental changes 21

natural gas, development of 86

natural resource extraction 18

natural systems 123

NEI system see national energy infrastructure (NEI) system

networked infrastructures, totality of 173

NII see national information infrastructure (NII)

NISs see national infrastructure systems (NISs)

NTI see national transportation infrastructure (NTI)

NWIS see national water infrastructure system (NWIS)

off-grid infrastructure 98

oil infrastructure, interconnectivity of 92

oil pipeline infrastructure 85

oil production 84–5

oil-product pipelines 89

over-supplied infrastructure deteriorates 179

penetration, notion of 181

penetrative infrastructure system, development of 182

personal connectivity 43–4

personal infrastructure 162

petroleum products 85–6

petrol products 89

physiography 35–6

pipelines 84–5

planning system, corruption-free 135

point of investment 141

policy debates 66

policy narratives 131

policy prescription 131

policy strategy 164

policy support, criticality and 143–5

political behaviour, parameters of 3

political inclusiveness 16

political infrastructure investment risks 142

political interference 141

political risks 141

political uncertainty 140

politics 159

polycentric infrastructure system 8

polycentrism 139–40, 173

competitive advantages from 143

criticality and policy support 143–5

degrees of 186

diverse funding 140–42

measures to facilitate resilience 145–6

regulation of provision 142–3

systems 9, 15, 16

population 117–18

growth 117

port infrastructure 37–8, 50

port quality 41

post-industrial economy 66

poverty reduction 18

power generation 88

PPPs see public-private partnerships

primary energy 83

sources 84

systems 84

proactivism 47–8, 61

production capacity 94

productivity 163

property rights 131

provision, regulation of 142–3

public health systems 115

public policy/state strategy 21–2

public-private partnerships (PPPs) 140, 141

public sector budgets 140

public sector performance 131

public transport 48

provision of 50

RAI see Rural Access Index (RAI)

rail infrastructure 35–6, 43, 49, 53

quality 40

rail networks 41, 180, 182

rainwater harvesting 123

rapidity 145

reactivisim 61

recycling/reuse systems 123

refinery capacity 85

regional hubs 86

regional strategies 17

regulatory infrastructure investment risks 142

relational infrastructure systems 14–15

reliability, issue of 179

renewables 21, 28, 98–101, 104

‘modern’ forms of 99

off-grid 97

resilience 145

community 155, 164

of component 183

human capital in 165

infrastructural 186

of infrastructure 186

soft side of 146

systemic nature of 145

resourcefulness 145

re-territorialisation 178

road infrastructures 35, 40, 42, 44, 49, 53, 54

road network 33, 40, 42, 54, 182

road systems 35, 40, 42–3, 49, 183

capacity of 183

robustness 145

Rural Access Index (RAI) 44

rural sanitation 110

sanitation 110

infrastructure improvement 110

secondary energy 83, 87, 180

self-sufficiency 83

self-sustaining system 18–19

semi-natural systems 123

small-scale water and energy systems 182–3

social assets/facilities 152–3

social capital 159–61, 164, 165

centrality of 156

concept of 165

conduits of 155–6

cost of 160

determinant of 160–61

development of 154, 157–61, 186

education 160

focal point of 161–2

importance of 159

pre-existing 158

social infrastructure and 156–61

social cohesion 16

social entrapment 44

social exclusion 44, 158

limit 157

social housing 161

social inclusion 66

social infrastructure 152–5, 159–62, 186

broad categories of 153

community-specific nature of 157

conceptualisation of 152

development of 154

effect of 155

existence of 157

and human capital 161–3

and infrastructure resilience 163–6

maintenance of 159–60

nature of 152–6

provision of 154, 159–60

and social capital 156–61

upon human capital 186

social infrastructures system 185

social injustice 44

social interaction 156

social needs 155

social norms 160

social relationships 152

social rental housing 161

social transgressions 154

social wellbeing 19

socio-economic transformation 71

socio-environmental impacts 122

socio-technical infrastructure of energy and water 180

soft/hard infrastructure interface 130

soft infrastructure 51, 123, 132, 137, 138, 185, 186

of borders 137

broader access 133–4

component of hard infrastructure systems 136

decentralisation 133

development of 163

diverse ownership 134

governance of inter-state flows 136–9

infrastructural mandate and 133

and polycentric NIS see polycentrism

recognised 135–6

regulatory component of 142–3

role of 130

salience of 130, 133, 186

state of 132

territoriality and 130–36

usage-driven 136

soil degradation 123

solar power infrastructure 99

sovereignty 1, 72–3, 82–3

spatial complexity 9

state and infrastructure system 1–2

control 12–14

development/growth 17–18

integration 15–17

national infrastructure system (NIS) 9–12

security 14–15

sustainability 18–20

territorial strategies 2–9

state development 66

state legitimisation 82–3

state power

manifestations of 120

and national information infrastructure (NII) 72–6

physical extent of 136

state security infrastructure 37

state society 43–4

state territoriality 73, 82

challenges to 74

exclusivity of 1

and transport infrastructure 31

state territorial strategies 4, 110–11, 175, 185

infrastructural capacity for 179

storage infrastructure system 92

stranded assets 101

suprastructures 173

surface water 108

level of 122

sustainability 101

sustainable infrastructure 19

sustaining reliability 178

synchronisation 141

system governance 162

systemic nature of infrastructure 6

telecommunication users 65–6

territorial cohesion 17

territorial control, confluence of 13

territorial functioning 1

territorial infrastructure system 6

territorial integration 16

territoriality 2, 3, 73, 116, 117, 172

concept of 14

domain of 132

infrastructure and 2–3, 6

territorial strategy 2–4, 9–10, 19, 33, 61, 70, 83, 94

implementation of 172–3

notion of 3

objective of 38–9

role of 12

territorial sustainability 18–19

territorial vulnerabilities 8

territorial waters 69

trade facilitation 137–8

measures of 138

transmission/distribution process 92

transmission system 88

transparency 131

transport, environmental effects of 50

transport/transportation

gap 54

infrastructure 43–4, 182

poverty 44

related energy 89

systems 39

technology 47

trust systems 159

UBI see universal basic infrastructure (UBI)

universal accessibility 82

universal basic infrastructure (UBI) 16

universalism 154

attainment of 154

UN’s Millennium Development Goals 19

urban de-population 117

urban infrastructures 69

urbanisation 47–8

degree of 109, 118

urban population 108–9, 117–18, 122

USA 91

usage-based pricing systems 139

user communities, creation of 156

Venezuela 91

violence 13–14

virtual trade in water 121–2

virtual transmission 20

virtual water trade 122

waste water 109–10, 118

management systems 109–10

treatment 111, 113

water

availability of 115

courses 184

demand for 113

and energy, socio-technical systems of 184

inter-state conflict over 185

poverty 114

productivity, issues of 113

provision of 111

retention 123

salinity 122

socio-technical infrastructures of 179

supplies of 184–5

systems, element of control within 112

territorialising 111

usage, diversity of 118

water infrastructure 111, 115–17, 123

absence/erosion of 112

ageing 120–21

circular 181

climate change 119

development of 184–5

efficiency and productivity of 111

heterogeneity of 106

investment in 120

population 117–18

quality of 118

senescence in 120

water resources

quality of 110

territorial 114

Water Resources Group (WRG) 121

water security 185

infrastructural pressures for 121

water supply 106

dry periods 119

infrastructure 108

issues of 112

production of 113

quality, resilience and reliability of 108

risk of flooding 119

sources 117

storage systems 119

system 107–9

and waste water treatment 111

WEF see World Economic Forum (WEF)

World Bank 17, 131

World Economic Forum (WEF) 17, 39–40, 64, 122, 131, 141

World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) 112–14, 117–18

WRG see Water Resources Group (WRG)

WWAP see World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP)