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The Art of Mooting

Theories, Principles and Practice

Mark Thomas and Lucy Cradduck

This book examines the theories relevant to the development of skills necessary for effective participation in competition moots. By consideration of underlying theories the authors develop unique models of the skills of the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains and effective team dynamics; and emphasise the importance of written submissions. The authors use this analysis to develop a unique integrated model that informs the process of coaching moot teams according to reliable principles.
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Index

Mark Thomas and Lucy Cradduck

accents and pronunciation 467
see also psychomotor domain, vocal performance
Adcroft, A 100, 103, 105, 109, 114, 115
affective domain 4, 5, 5079
cab-rank rule 59
changing sides 59
cognitive domain and affective performance 18, 21, 27
competition preparation 547
ethical/affective framework and re-arranged value system 589
incommensurability of values 59
International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017), practices after selection of oralists 14950, 155
legal-logical argument role 52, 547, 71
moral values, internalisation of particular and appropriate 589
persuasiveness 52, 55, 118
Rule of Law acceptance 58
skills development 5778
skills development measurement 78, 173, 176, 177
skills hierarchy taxonomy 523
syllogistic reasoning, limitations of 556
theoretical framework 524
see also cognitive domain; psychomotor domain
affective domain, anxiety levels 5052, 5964, 956
and alien physical landscape of the moot court 68
and cognitive distortion 76
emotional anxiety 758
emotional confrontation with the Bench, dissipation of 68
external stimuli, dealing with and fight/flight reaction 612
flooding 62, 634, 74
and group contagion 767
location anxiety, Bench and three-judge model 69
performance effects and ‘individualised zone of optimal functioning’ (IZOF) 60, 61, 62, 65, 75, 14950
pharmacological intervention (beta-blockers) 623, 64
physiological responses 67
positive feedback effect 71
professional intervention consideration 78
public speaking 2021, 667, 104
selection/release of problem and differentially staged progression 778
state and trait 6061, 94
systematic desensitisation 62, 63, 647, 68, 713, 150
see also anxiety
affective domain, anxiety levels, intellectual anxiety and ‘hostile Bench’ 6975, 150
content anxiety 71
hostility levels, effects of increasing and cognitive complexity 745
judicial demeanour range 7071
judicial engagement levels 70
see also Bench
Agras, S 65
Allen, M 62
Alm, P 67
analysis, synthesis and evaluation, cognitive domain see cognitive domain, analysis, synthesis and evaluation
Anderson, J 84, 87
Anderson, L 4, 6, 15, 1617, 36, 96
Angleitner, A 1023
anxiety
excessive anxiety effect, psychomotor domain 37
levels see affective domain, anxiety levels
and oral practices, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 145
appearance, individual 412
see also psychomotor domain
Athanassiou, N 16
audio and video recording use and self-evaluation 913
Australia
Attorney General (Cth) v ‘Kevin and Jennifer’ 121
Bryan v Maloney 127
C S v Anna Biedrzycka 47
Caltex Oil (Aust) Pty Ltd v The Dredge Willemstad 127
judicial power 1212
NV Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken v Mirabella International Pty Ltd 47
Avants, S 51
Ayres, J 21, 65
Aziz, S 17, 18, 312
Baren, R 131
Barsade, S 75, 76
Barthes, R 117, 119, 130, 1323, 135
Beatty, P 37
Beauchamp, M 103, 104, 111, 113
Beck, P 76, 78
behaviourism, and cognitive domain 1718
Bench
emotional confrontation, dissipation of 68
hostile, and intellectual anxiety see affective domain, anxiety levels, intellectual anxiety and ‘hostile Bench’
location anxiety and three-judge model 69
mode of address appropriate to members of 578
non-speaking mooters as members of practice Bench 26
questions from the Bench, responding to 22, 234, 25, 70, 15762, 1745
see also ‘court’ headings
Bentley, D 25
Berliner, D 85
beta-blockers 623, 64
see also anxiety
Billings, P 108
Blalock, D 93
Blasi, G 256, 83
Bloom, B 13, 1415, 16, 1719, 23, 30, 54, 73, 169
Bowes, I 86
Boyle, J 34, 44, 92
Brantigan, C 63
Brennan, S 46
Brommel, B 32, 34, 45, 47
Brooker, R 168
Burns, D 76, 78
Butler, J 4, 42
cab-rank rule 59
Canale, M 119, 130, 135, 136, 137
Carlson, T 167
Carron, A 102, 103, 114
Catano, V 33, 35
coaching skills 67, 8197
affective domain and anxiety management 934
coach mentoring benefits and team dynamics 108
coach selection 967
coach time capacity, and future of law schools and mooting 1823
coaches as facilitators 95
coaching model 889
coaching in practice 946
coaching as process 83
and cognitive domain 90
competition outcomes 867
competition outcomes, subjective assessment criteria 86
competition preparation 879
model development 849
participants’ assimilation of relevant materials and arguments 95
participation coaching 88
performance coaching 88
professional skills and personal characteristics, development of 87
sporting teams analogies 85, 945
state of maximum effectiveness, generating 956
student mentor/second coach 100
theoretical foundation 824
written submissions and coach involvement limitations 119
see also skills development; team dynamics
coaching skills, coach knowledge 846
declarative knowledge 845
interpersonal knowledge 86
pedagogical-content knowledge 856
presentation of legal solution (forensic advocacy), understanding 85, 86
technical knowledge 85
see also cognitive domain, knowledge dimension
coaching skills, and psychomotor domain 9093
areas of weakness, identifying 91
audio and video recording use and self-evaluation 913
vocal stamina, attention to 93
voice pitch lowering 923
cognitive distortion and anxiety levels 76
cognitive domain 35, 1328
affective performance 18, 21, 27
and behaviourism 1718
and coaching skills 90
competition preparation 18, 20
comprehension/understanding skills, and practice and drill sessions 17, 19, 234, 25
debating skills comparison 2021, 667, 104
International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017), practices after selection of oralists 147, 155, 156
lack of preparation effect 37
and persuasiveness 4, 16, 27, 155
psychomotor skills integration 18, 27, 37, 39, 41
skills development 2027
skills development measurement 278, 16975, 177
skills hierarchy taxonomy 1517, 1820, 71, 735
theoretical foundations 1420
thought processes 18
and written submissions 118, 119, 120, 1312
see also affective domain; psychomotor domain
cognitive domain, analysis, synthesis and evaluation 17, 19, 90, 170, 173
and International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 143, 144, 147, 156, 157, 1612
and legal argument development 18, 20, 735
non-speaking mooters as members of practice Bench 26
practice and perfection of submissions 213, 257, 735, 119
self-evaluation and peer-evaluation 27, 90
solutions and problem space 26
cognitive domain, knowledge dimension 17, 19, 170, 1712
court procedures and etiquette 22, 234
and International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 144, 147, 15662
knowledge application skills 20, 245
knowledge retention skills 22, 71
self-evaluation and peer-evaluation 90
team questioning sessions 223
see also coaching skills, coach knowledge
cognitive resources and open communication 105, 11113, 114
see also team dynamics
communication
competence, and written submissions 130, 1348
open communication and team dynamics 105, 11113, 114
competition
International Criminal Court (ICC) see International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017)
outcomes, and coaching skills 867
rules, and team selection 110
competition preparation
affective domain 547
coaching skills 879
cognitive domain 18, 20
psychomotor domain 358
team dynamics 11112
written submissions 118, 12930
comprehension/understanding skills 17, 19, 234, 25
concision versus precision, written submissions 1323
conscious versus unconscious control 367
see also psychomotor domain
Cooray, S 103, 105, 106, 107, 111, 11213, 182
Coper, M 122
Côté, J 84, 86, 87, 88, 89
court attire (dress) 42
court etiquette 22, 234, 578
see also Bench
court landscape and anxiety levels 68
criterion-referenced assessment (CRA) see skill development measurement, criterion-referenced assessment (CRA)
Croston, G 66
Dave, R 8, 30, 33
debating skills comparison 2021, 667, 104
DeCoske, M 46
Deffenbacher, J 73
delivery speed 478
see also psychomotor domain, vocal performance
desensitisation, systematic, and anxiety levels 62, 63, 647, 68, 713, 150
Desierto, A 56
Dettmer, P 1
development measurement
skills see skills development measurement
team dynamics 11314, 177
developmental role, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017), practices after selection of oralists 1556
Dignam, J 103
Dirks, A 16
discourse competence, written submissions 1367
diversity of attributes 105, 107
see also team dynamics
drafting period, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 144
dress (court attire) 42
see also ‘court’ headings
Dunn, L 167, 168
Dworkin, R 13, 56, 73, 1267
economic analysis of law 127
editing and strategic competence, written submissions 1378
effectiveness
measurement, psychomotor domain 323
state of maximum, and coaching skills 956
Elman, M 62
emotional anxiety 758
engaged document use 44
see also psychomotor domain
ethical framework and re-arranged value system 589
etiquette, court 22, 234, 578
see also Bench
evaluation see cognitive domain, analysis, synthesis and evaluation
experiential learning 39
facial expression 44, 69
see also psychomotor domain
feedback use
affective domain, anxiety levels 71
skill development measurement, criterion-referenced assessment (CRA) 166
team dynamics 107, 114
and written submissions, skills development 133
Feezel, J 19
feminism 128
Ferris, T 17, 18, 312
fight/flight reaction 612
see also anxiety
Filho, E 103, 105
Fishbein, M 63
Fitts, P 34
Fletcher, D 91
flooding 62, 634, 74
see also anxiety
fluency 47, 149
see also psychomotor domain, vocal performance
Foa, E 62, 63, 64
foreign names and pronunciation 467
see also psychomotor domain, vocal performance
Fowler, J 39
Fredricks, S 58
Fu, F 43
Furst, E 15, 18
future of law schools and place of mooting 1813
and coach’s time capacity 1823
technology impact 182
Gallimore, R 84
Garber, B 64, 73
gestures 378, 434, 148
see also psychomotor domain
Gilbert, W 84, 86, 87, 88, 89
Godden, D 55
Goldfried, M 64, 65
Gottfried, C-G 63
grammatical competence, written submissions 1356
group contagion 767
see also anxiety
Gygar, T 4, 42
Hafez, Z 120, 131
Hall, K 123
hand gestures 378, 434, 148
see also psychomotor domain
Hanin, Y 60
Hanley, S 95
Hanna, W 16
Hansen, K 4, 32
Hanton, S 65
Hardy, L 65
Harrow, A 8, 30, 33
Hart, H 134
Harvey, S 115
Hegland, K 59
Heydon, D 122
Hoffman, M 1056, 107, 111, 113
Hoffman, P 82
Holmes, O 122
Hopf, T 21, 65
Horn, T 87
Houlihan, D 63
Humara, M 60
Hunter, M 36
Imhof, M 92
individual personality characteristics, and team dynamics 1035, 107, 110, 113, 114
‘individualised zone of optimal functioning’ (IZOF) 60, 61, 62, 65, 75, 14950
see also anxiety
inherent natural skills versus practice 323
intellectual anxiety see affective domain, anxiety levels, intellectual anxiety and ‘hostile Bench’
International Court of Justice, Genocide Case 160
International Criminal Court (ICC)
Prosecutor v Dominic Ongwen 142
Prosecutor v Laurent Gbagbo 141
Prosecutor v Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir 142, 160, 162
United States of America v Josef Altstötter 141
United States of America v Karl Brandt 141
International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 110, 14064
analysis, synthesis and evaluation 143, 144, 147, 156, 157, 1612
knowledge dimension 144, 147, 15662
oral practices and anxiety levels 145
oral practices and pre-appointment of oralists 1456
Oral Rounds 15055
Oral Rounds, Moot problem 1515
Oral Rounds preliminary qualification and regional rounds 142, 144
oralists and role choice and uncertainty management 1467
problem release and written submissions 1445
questions and answers and cognitive skills 15672
research and drafting period 144
Rome Statute 141, 143, 147, 151, 159, 160, 161
separate qualification process for Australian teams 1423
team dynamics assessment 144, 145
team result 1634
team size and student selection 1434
team’s domain capacities, assessment of 1434
word limits for submissions 1423, 145
written submissions, development and refinement and cognitive domain 147
see also team dynamics
International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017), practices after selection of oralists 14750
affective domain 14950, 155
cognitive domain 147, 155, 156
developmental role 1556
psychomotor domain 1489, 155
International Criminal Tribunal of Rwanda
Prosecutor v Clément Kayishema 162
Prosecutor v Jean-Paul Akayesu 160, 162
IZOF (‘individualised zone of optimal functioning’) 60, 61, 62, 65, 75, 14950
see also anxiety
Johnson, B 36
Johnson, R 168
Johnston, J 33, 35
Jones, R 86
judicial activism role, written submissions 12022, 129
judicial demeanour range and engagement levels 7071
see also Bench
Jung, K 102, 103, 1045
Juslin, P 48
Kaufman, H 31, 32, 43, 45, 92
Kelly, J 75, 76
Kerr, T 119
Keyes, M 2
Kiefel CJ AC, Susan, The Hon. 122
Kimble, J 133
Kirby AC CMG, Michael, The Hon. 122
knowledge, and coaching skills see coaching skills, coach knowledge
knowledge dimension, cognitive domain see cognitive domain, knowledge dimension
Kolb, D 39
Koufman, J 93
Kozak, M 62, 63
Krathwohl, D 4, 6, 15, 1617, 36, 523, 57, 58, 96, 157
Kraus, S 76
Kronman, A 59
Lang, P 65
language-based skills see cognitive domain; written submissions
Lazarus, A 62
Lazovik, D 65
lectern stance 42, 69
see also psychomotor domain
legal analytical processes and principles of law, written submissions 1245
legal argument development, analysis, synthesis and evaluation 18, 20, 735
legal concept complexity, written submissions 133
legal solution presentation, and coaching skills 85, 86
legal-logical argument role, affective domain 52, 547, 71
Leiboff, M 56, 73, 121, 125, 128, 133
Lephart, S 43
Letts, Q 51
Levis, D 62
Lidén, S 63
Linklater, K 93
location anxiety 69
see also Bench
Low, G 48
Lyle, J 84, 88
Lynch, A 2
McAdam, A 124
McCroskey, J 4, 30, 323, 47, 89
McDevitt, W 2
MacFarlane, J 83
McLeod, D 67
Maharg, P 54
Malkiewich, L 65
Marks, I 62, 64
Mason AC KBE CBE QC, Sir Anthony, The Hon. 122, 129
Maughan, C 54
mental agility, importance of 37
Merluzzi, T 65
Michaelsen, L 101, 106
Michie, S 62
Middlestadt, S 63
Miechenbaum, D 73
Mill, J S 545
mode of address appropriate to members of the Bench 578
see also Bench
moral framework and re-arranged value system 589
Morgan, C 167
Mulac, A 48
Muller, R 68, 94
Munn, N 44
Nadelmann, K 178
natural law and positivism, difference between 1256
New Zealand, Cholmondeley v Wright, Stephenson & Co 47
Nichols, N 53
Noble, C 31
non-selection effect, managing 99
see also team dynamics
non-speaking mooters as members of practice Bench 26
see also Bench
Norcross, J 73
O’Donovan, B 1678
Oermann, M 31
Olatunji, B 64
Oliver, R 119
open communication and cognitive resources, team dynamics 105, 11113, 114
Oral Rounds, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 15055
oral practices and pre-appointment of oralists 1456
oralists, role choice and uncertainty management 1467
preliminary qualification and regional rounds 142, 144
O’Reilly, M 167
Osbeck, M 52
Ostendorf, F 1023
palpitations 67
see also anxiety
Parsons, L 2, 57, 115
participation coaching 88
Pearce, W 32, 34, 45, 47
peer-evaluation 27, 90
see also cognitive domain, analysis, synthesis and evaluation
Pepper, S 58
performance
coaching 88
effects and ‘individualised zone of optimal functioning’ (IZOF) 60, 61, 62, 65, 75, 14950
potential, identifying, and team dynamics 106, 107
persuasiveness
affective domain 52, 55, 118
cognitive domain 4, 16, 27
psychomotor domain 30, 31, 32, 41, 43
skills development measurement, criterion-referenced assessment (CRA) 172, 1734
written submissions 119, 123, 128, 130, 131, 1356
Pescosolido, A 101, 112, 113
pharmacological intervention (beta-blockers) 623, 64
see also anxiety
plain English writing, written submissions 1312, 1334
Pörschmann, C 91
positivism and natural law, difference between 1256
post-modernism 128
post-structuralism 128
posture 412, 456, 69, 148
see also psychomotor domain
practice
inherent natural skills versus 323
sessions 17, 19, 234, 25
submissions, practice and perfection of 213, 257, 735, 119
precision versus concision, written submissions 1323
preparation, effect of lack of 37
Price, M 167
professional intervention consideration, and anxiety levels 78
projection 48, 93
see also psychomotor domain, vocal performance
pronunciation 467
see also psychomotor domain, vocal performance
proof reading importance, written submissions 130
proprioception skills 43
psychomotor domain 45, 2949
appearance 412
coaching skills see coaching skills, and psychomotor domain
cognitive skills integration 18, 27, 37, 39, 41
competition preparation 358
conscious versus unconscious control 367
dress (court attire) 42
effectiveness measurement 323
engaged document use 44
excessive anxiety (affective domain) effect 37
experiential learning 39
facial expression 44, 69
gesture 378, 434, 148
hand gestures 434
inherent natural skills versus practice 323
International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017), practices after selection of oralists 1489, 155
lack of preparation effect 37
lectern stance 42, 69
mental agility, importance of 37
persuasiveness 30, 31, 32, 41, 43
posture 412, 456, 69, 148
posture, gesture and vocal performance 378
proprioception skills 43
self-evaluation of questions of posture and vocal dynamics 42, 456
skills development 31, 3848
skills development measurement 48, 177
skills hierarchy taxonomy 33, 345, 378, 39
stance 412, 69
stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) elements 31
theatrical qualities 3, 4, 30, 32, 356, 434
theoretical foundation 315
see also affective domain; cognitive domain
psychomotor domain, vocal performance 378, 448, 148, 1734
fluency 47, 149
projection 48, 93
pronunciation, accents and foreign names 467
self-evaluation 42, 456, 91
soliloquy delivery 34
speed of delivery 478
vocal dynamics 456, 149
vocal stamina, attention to 93
voice pitch lowering 923
public speaking comparison 2021, 667, 104
questions and answers and cognitive skills, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 15672
questions from the Bench, responding to 22, 234, 25, 70, 15762, 1745
Rachman, S 64
Red Cross International Humanitarian Law Competition 143
regional rounds, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 142, 144
Reinfeldt, S 91
Riebe, L 100
Rieber, L 119
Rogers, C 37
role choice for oralists, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 1467
Rome Statute 141, 143, 147, 151, 159, 160, 161
see also International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017)
Rovai, A 36
Rule of Law acceptance 58
Rust, C 167
Saavedra, R 101, 112, 113
Sambell, K 168
Sarkar, M 91
Sato, K 67
Saunders, T 61, 64, 74
Scherer, K 48
Schjatvet, C 120, 131
Schön, D 83
Schwartz, R 67
Scollon, R and S 112
Seaman, M 15
Sears, S 76
selection of team see under team dynamics
self-evaluation
audio and video recording use 913
cognitive domain, analysis, synthesis and evaluation 27, 90
knowledge dimension (knowing and remembering facts) 90
posture and vocal dynamics 42, 456, 91
Sheets, B 48
Sherman, A 48
Shingin, T 13
Simpson, E 8, 30, 33, 43
skills development
affective domain 5778
cognitive domain 2027
psychomotor domain 31, 3848
see also coaching skills
skills development measurement, criterion-referenced assessment (CRA) 23, 16575
affective skills 78, 173, 176, 177
cognitive skills 278, 16975, 177
criteria/standards matrix 16872, 1846
formative feedback role 166
persuasiveness 172, 1734
psychomotor skills 48, 177
questions from the Bench, responding to 22, 234, 25, 70, 15762, 1745
summative assessment 166
team dynamics 103, 11314, 177
theoretical foundation 1668
tools 48, 78, 114
written submissions see written submissions, skills development
skills hierarchy taxonomy
affective domain 523
cognitive domain 1517, 1820, 71, 735
psychomotor domain 33, 345, 378, 39
team dynamics 1027
Skinner, B 1718
Skura, B 95
Smith, T 124
social presence levels, team dynamics 1067, 111
sociolinguistic competence, written submissions 136
soliloquy delivery 34
see also psychomotor domain, vocal performance
sporting teams analogies
coaching skills 85, 945
team dynamics 99, 1012, 108, 109, 114
Stallman, H 91
Stampfl, T 62
stance 412, 69
see also psychomotor domain
Starr, C 16
state and trait anxiety levels 6061, 94
statute and case law engagement, written submissions 120, 1234
stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) elements 31
see also psychomotor domain
Stone, J 56
Stowell, F 103, 105, 106, 107, 111, 11213, 182
strategic competence and submission editing, written submissions 1378
student mentor/second coach, team dynamics 100
submissions
practice and perfection of 213, 257, 735, 119
written see written submissions
Swain, M 136
sweating 67
see also anxiety
Sweet, M 101, 106
syllogistic reasoning, limitations of 556
synthesis see cognitive domain, analysis, synthesis and evaluation
talent pool constraints, team selection 10910
team dynamics 98115
coach mentoring benefits 108
competition preparation 11112
complementary skills versus division of labour 103
development measurement 103, 11314, 177
diversity of attributes 105, 107
feedback use 107, 114
hierarchy typology development 1027
and individual personality characteristics 1035, 107, 110, 113, 114
non-selection effect, managing 99
open communication and cognitive resources 105, 11113, 114
performance potential, identifying 106, 107
sporting teams analogies 99, 1012, 108, 109, 114
student mentor/second coach 100
student-run initiatives 100
tasks necessary to achieve winning goal 112
team bonding 11213
team building 11112
team cohesion and performance link 99100, 1012, 11213
team composition 989, 100
team selection 99, 102, 104, 106, 10810, 111, 1434
team selection, and competition rules 110
team selection, talent pool constraints 10910
team selection, written application 110
theoretical foundation 1012
trust development and social presence levels 1067, 111
see also coaching skills; International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017)
team questioning sessions, and knowledge dimension 223
team result, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 1634
team size and domain capacities and student selection, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 1434
technology impact, future of law schools and place of mooting 182
Teckman, J 100, 103, 105, 109, 114, 115
Terry, P 101
Tharp, R 84
Thayer, J 667
theatrical qualities 3, 4, 30, 32, 356, 434
Tindall, B 51, 63
Trudel, P 87
trust development and social presence levels, team dynamics 1067, 111
UK, Donoghue v Stevenson 120
US
legal realism 1278
Roe v Wade 127
Vanaspu, L 14, 27
video and audio recording use and self-evaluation 913
vocal performance see psychomotor domain, vocal performance
Von Békésy, G 91
Watson, J 131
Webb, J 26, 28, 83
Webber, J 122
Weitan, W 34
Wenderoth, M 16
Whincop, M 2
White, S 46
Williams, M 46
winning goal, tasks necessary to achieve 112
see also team dynamics
Wolpe, J 62, 63, 65
Woodman, R 114
word limits for submissions, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 1423, 145
written application, team selection 110
written submissions 11739, 177
coach involvement limitations 119
and cognitive skills 118, 119, 120, 1312
competition preparation 12930
and competition’s court 118
development and refinement, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 147
judicial activism role 12022, 129
legal analytical processes and principles of law 1245
persuasiveness 119, 123, 128, 130, 131, 1356
positions of all parties, consideration of 130
preparation process 119
proof reading importance 130
statute and case law engagement 120, 1234
theoretical foundation 12029
word limits, International Criminal Court (ICC) Mooting Competition (2017) 1423, 145
written submissions, skills development 13039, 1734
communicative competence 130, 1348
concision versus precision 1323
discourse competence 1367
and feedback 133
grammatical competence 1356
legal concept complexity 133
plain English writing 1312, 1334
skills development measurement 1389
sociolinguistic competence 136
strategic competence and submission editing 1378
see also skills development
written submissions, theory utilisation 1259
American legal realism 1278
Dworkin’s theory of adjudication 13, 56, 73, 1267
economic analysis of law 127
feminism 128
formalism and anti-formalism, distinction between 129
natural law and positivism, difference between 1256
post-modernism 128
post-structuralism 128
Wydick, R 135
Yin, K 56
Young, P 132
Yule, W 634
Zenun, M 103
Zoellner, L 62