Competing and Co-Existing
This chapter presents professional rule as a governance paradigm. When parts of the public sector were professionalized, the professions became important for public sector governance. Historically, professional rule has coexisted with bureaucracy, and it now coexists with the new governance paradigms. Professional rule gives autonomy to the members of occupations with specialized, theoretical knowledge and professional norms. This challenges the hierarchical chain of command, because professional rule is based on horizontal collegiality, and the (professional) leaders are considered as primus inter pares. If professional rule dominates, the loyalty of both employees and leaders with backgrounds in strong professions will primarily be to these professions and their professional associations rather than with the public organizations they work in. Given that professional norms play an important role as governance mechanism, this paradigm scores very high on the use of value articulation.
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