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Public Governance Paradigms

Competing and Co-Existing

Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

This enlightening book scrutinizes the shifting governance paradigms that inform public administration reforms. From the rise to supremacy of New Public Management to new the growing preference for alternatives, four world-renowned authors launch a powerful and systematic comparison of the competing and co-existing paradigms, explaining the core features of public bureaucracy and professional rule in the modern day.
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Index

Jacob Torfing, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Carsten Greve and Kurt K. Klausen

academics 11–14, 19, 22, 27, 93, 99, 104, 165

Accident Insurance Act of 1884 25

accountability 13–14, 27, 43, 82, 161, 173, 178

bottom-up 135

democratic 108, 135

and loyalty 177

problems 123

actor-based framework 41

administration

doctrines 58

failures 8

forms of 153

governance and 13

learning processes 152

megatrends 58

metagovernors 134

public 2–4, 6–7, 12

reform policy 6

research 1

administrative reform policy 6–8

debate on 7

revival of 5–8

administrative silos 19, 127, 140

administrative statesmanship 28, 34, 85

Affordable Care Act 99

Andersen, L. B. 32, 45–6, 48–9, 111

Andrews, R. 31, 66, 83

anti-bureaucratic backlash 13

ANZSOG see Australia and New Zealand School of Government (ANZSOG)

arms-length governance 139

artificial intelligence 95, 99

assumptions about human behaviour 153, 159–65, 170

Australia and New Zealand School of Government (ANZSOG) 114

authorizing environment 115, 117, 122, 173

Banishing Bureaucracy (Osborne, D. and P. Plastrik) 65

behavioural norms 160–61

Bertelsmann Foundation Sustainable Governance Indicators 82

big data 91, 93, 96, 99–100, 104, 157, 163

Blacksburg Manifesto 7, 27, 84, 152

blockchain technology 104

bonus wages 128

bottom-up accountability 135

bottom-up governance processes 125

Bouckaert, G. 10, 55, 66–7, 74–8, 81, 88

Bryson, J. M. 105, 111–12, 121

budget control 146

bureaucracy 24–6, 37, 44, 126, 151, 155, 159, 170–71, 173–4, 177–8

advantages and disadvantages of 35

aspects of 49–50

bashing 27

classical 106, 126, 155, 170, 172–3

classification of 29

critique of 31–3

debate and dilemmas 32–6

description of 24

empirical results 30–32

in Germany 25

governance idea 28–30

hierarchies of 171

inspiration, theoretical positions and exemplary countries 26–8

managerial logic of 178

paradigm 156

principles of 26

professional rule and 51, 179

separation of 50

standards of 178–9

Weberian 151

Weber’s theory of 85

bureaucratic ethics 152

bureaucratic governance 27

diamond 30

paradigm 29, 49

bureaucratic paradigm 151

bureaucratic performance 173

bureaucratic systems 173

bureaucratization 31–2, 69

capitalism 64

centralization 25, 29, 31, 33, 60, 69, 97, 130, 155, 175, 181

dynamics of 175

centralized control 18

degree of 19, 43, 61

centralized decision-making 155

chain of governance 139–40

Christensen, T. 25, 66, 76, 81, 88

civil servants 3, 28–9, 34, 122, 151

professional rule by 151

civil service ethics 78

civil society 20, 62, 108, 110–12, 119, 127, 129, 136–7, 141, 172, 176

classical bureaucracy 80, 136, 155, 158–9, 163, 165, 170, 172–3, 175, 179, 183–4

basic assumption in 161

sectorization of 176

classical organizational design 182

classical public sector values 54

classical theories of organization 59

clientelism 25

Clinton, Bill 57, 64

COCOPS (Coordination for Cohesion in the Public Sector of the Future)

research project 82–3

survey 83–4

co-creation 80, 143, 146, 176, 183

of local climate solutions 140

network governance and 137

partnerships and processes of 137

platform and arena for 145–6

processes 75, 172

in public sector 135

of public solutions 135, 147–8

of public value outcomes 109, 112, 138

co-evolution 126

collaboration

cross-boundary 112, 127

cross-cutting 144, 149

degree of 145

innovation 131, 145

inter-agency 62

multi-actor 132

public-private 141

collaborative advantage 139

collaborative governance 15, 109, 141, 183

impact of 145

networks 127

processes 125–6

collaborative innovation 135, 145, 150, 176

emerging field of 145

process 150

collaborative networks

face-to-face interaction in 99

formation of 128

collective actors 37

compassion 46

competitive formal education 39–40

competitive problem-solving strategies 138

computers 92

Confucianism, principles of 24

consumer co-production 113

contemporary public sector 84

contracting out 35, 50, 86, 102, 126, 128, 146, 175

Cook, B. J. 129

coping behaviours 33

co-production 80, 131, 143, 146, 176

of public goods 112–13

of public sector 135

of public services 116

of public solutions 143, 147

corporate management approach 127

corruption 25, 28, 31, 69, 71

creative thinking 138

crisis management 143

Crosby, B. C. 105, 111–12, 121

cross-boundary collaboration 112, 127

cross-boundary coordination 61

cross-boundary networks 140

cross-cutting collaboration 144, 149

cultural differences 59, 160

cultural norms 133

cultural theory 153

customer-orientation 128

cybersecurity 99, 101

de-bureaucratization 32–3

decentralization 60, 155, 181

dynamics of 175

decision-making

power 172

principles 134

process 180

DEG see Digital Era Governance (DEG)

democracy 25, 31, 35, 77–8, 80, 86, 103, 122–3, 125, 143, 177

democratic accountability 108

democratic control 148

democratic legitimacy 133–4

demotivation of public employees 68–9

Denmark 42, 48, 50, 56, 71, 76, 81–2, 84, 91, 94–6, 101, 137

deregulation 13, 128

design fit 169

destructive conflicts 134–5, 138

differentiation strategy 109

digital change 93, 96–7, 104

Digital Era Governance (DEG) 14–15, 75, 89–92, 130, 151, 155, 157, 163, 171, 176, 182–3

classification of 97

combinations of 102

conceptualization of 90

debate and dilemmas 100–104

degree of societal involvement 98

development of 91

elements of 90, 96

emergence of 89–90

empirical results 99–100

governance diamond 98

governance idea 96–9

inspiration, theoretical positions and exemplary countries 92–5

digital governance 94

digitalization 3, 89–92, 103, 163, 181

arguments for 155

aspect of 177

‘dark side’ of 100–101

developments in 93

growth of 103

of public governance 95

of public services 89, 99

study of 100

digital rankings 103–4

digital services 95, 102

digital solutions 90, 103, 176

structure and use of 155

digital technology 94, 130, 151, 157, 163

integration of 95

strategic use of 94

dilemmas, types of 182

distributed leadership 176

dominant governance paradigm 72–3, 152

dual closure 42

Dunleavy, P. 9–10, 58, 66, 89–91, 96, 102

dynamic change 12, 162

economic basis 40, 49

economic globalization, competitive pressures from 16

economic incentives 28, 46, 60, 162, 175, 184

economic profession 41

economic stagflation 55

education 12–13, 27–8, 38–40, 47, 57, 77–8, 95, 100, 112, 143, 161–2

efficiency drive 58

e-government 83, 90, 94–5, 120

emergency response 143

employees 149, 169–70, 174, 177

employment

policy 97

procurement 120

entrepreneurialism 123

entrepreneurial leadership 59–60

entrepreneurial public managers 109, 122–3

entrepreneurship 162

environmental sustainability 141

European Citizens’ Consultations (ECC) 137

European Commission 84, 95

White Paper on Governance 6–7

European Research Council 7

European Union (EU) 137

evaluation 65

Hood and Dixon 67

systematic 66

evolutionary learning process 151

exclusion 42

executive accountability 82

executive capacity 82

financial sustainability 117

formalization 27, 29, 31, 34

fragmentation 13, 15, 61–2, 75, 90, 126–7

German Federal Employment Agency study (Meynhardt and Metelmann)119

German postal system 10

good governance 6, 35, 80–82

Gore, A. 57, 64

governability theory 133, 141

governance 84–5

quality of 81

governance category 82

governance diamond 158

dimensions of 43

model 158, 159

governance networks 102–3, 133, 140

processes and outcomes of 134

research 133

governance paradigms 2–3, 8–9, 12, 20, 125, 150, 158, 169, 179

assumptions about human behaviour 159–65

behavioural assumptions of 160

‘centralized control’ dimension 154

co-existing 2–3, 166–7, 181–2

comparing 153–9

competing 166, 182

development and discovery of 152

emerging 4

evolution, devolution and revolution 151–3

liberal-democratic 5

manifestations of 167

ranking of 154, 154

‘rationale’ of 166

roles and expectations 172

specific constellations of 167–8

working logic 166

governance research 132–3

governmentality theory 133

government coalition 152

government, formal institutions of 132

grid-group theory 153

harmony for systems 169

Health Insurance Act of 1883 25

hierarchical loyalty 28–9

hierarchy 24, 26–9, 34–5, 49, 140, 151, 154–5, 157, 177–9

historical institutionalism 133

homo economicus model of social action 20

Hood, C. 10, 54, 66, 153

horizontal coordination 18, 141, 155

degree of 19, 44, 61, 97, 116–17

formation of networks for 97

horizontal interagency 29, 79

human behaviour 160–62, 169–70

assumptions about 161, 165

homo economicus model of 164–5

paradigmatic stipulations about 165

hybrid governance paradigm 163

hybridization 12

hybrid leaders 48, 52

hybrid managers 79–80, 175

hybrid professionalism 47–8

IKEA model 118

implicit managerialism 130

incentives 45

economic 28

use of 18, 20, 156

inconsistency, degree of 169

individualism 70–71

individualization of societal risks 71

individual professionals 37, 39–45, 49

individual public managers 155

information asymmetry 38–41, 43, 56, 175

infrastructure partnerships 127

innovation 183

collaborative 135

partnerships 127

service, development of 134

theories of 169

In Praise of Bureaucracy (du Gay, P.) 27

institutional barriers 128

institutional governance 167

institutionalism 17, 70, 131, 133

institutionalization 17, 40, 136

institutional setup 159, 166, 184

institutional theory 131

integrity 52, 80, 110, 184

intellectual skills 161

interactive governance 125–6, 133, 139–40, 146, 148–9

inter-agency collaboration 62

interdependency theory 133, 141

intra-occupational norms 51–2

intra-organizational communications 92

intrinsic task-motivation 144

joined-up government 127

joint problem-solving 140

Keynesian economic policy 55

knowledge 44–6, 51–3, 56, 94, 100, 102, 111–12, 114–15, 128, 130, 135, 138–40

asymmetry 38

professional 37

sharing 138

Kuhn, Thomas 9

theory of scientific paradigms 10

labour

division of 174

ideal division of 170

Lægreid, P. 25, 66, 76, 81, 88

leadership 47, 130, 176

case-based studies of 119

and management 19, 114, 130

‘Lean’ technologies 175

liberal democracy 126

aspects of 125–6

Likert scale 142

management

crisis 143

leadership and 19, 114, 130

performance see performance management

professional 175, 179

public see public management

quality 175

strategic 105

value-chain 175

managerial behaviour 160

managerial control 162

managerial deliberation 180

managerial dilemmas 68, 167, 181–3

managerial discretion 167

managerialism 47–8, 52, 60, 79–80, 85, 127

managers 169, 172

manoeuvring between paradigms 171, 173, 178–84

Margetts, H. 9–10, 89, 91, 96, 99–100, 102

approach 90

market-based allocation 127

market-based competition 138

market-based governance 88

marketization 60, 85, 128, 176

of public sector 59

market mechanisms, introduction of 50

masculinity 70–71

medical criteria 45

medieval public organization 151

mega-reform cycle 55

megatrends, relevance of 86

metagovernance 125, 131, 134

exercise of 135, 147

Metelmann, J. 119

Meynhardt, T. 119

Milward, B. 84

modernization

programmes 68

of Weberian tradition 77

modern public managers 184

Moore, M. H. 70, 105–6, 108, 112–15, 118, 123

entrepreneurial types 119

managerial action approach 120–21

for mimicking neoliberalism 122

notion of Public Value Management (PVM) 78

original formulation 117–18

original version of PVM 109

strategic triangle and approach 114

version of PVM 121

multi-actor collaboration 132

multiple governance paradigms 159

multiple stakeholders 107

mutual learning 138

national culture 70–71, 161

needs-based holism 90, 96–7, 104

neoliberal critics 107

neoliberalism 63, 108

consequences of 122

hegemony of 63

neoliberal philosophers 55–6

Neo-Weberian State (NWS) 14, 40, 74–5, 106, 130, 152, 154–7, 177

characteristics of 76

classification of 79

conceptualization of 74

debate and dilemmas 84–8

degree of societal involvement 80

descriptive term of 77

diamond shapes of 159

empirical results 81–4

exemplars 74

explicit centralization of 130

faith in government 78

features of 77

governance diamond 79

governance idea 76–80

inspiration, theoretical positions and exemplary countries 76

international debate on 76

model 88

‘northern variant’ of 78

paradigm 171

recommendations 78

theory 85

network governance 128, 131, 138

and co-creation 137

emergence of 113

forms of 146–7

recommendation of 155

neutrality 28

New Public Governance (NPG) 15, 74, 125–31, 151, 153, 155–7, 159, 164–5, 170–71, 175–6, 179–80, 182–4

argument against 147

argument in favour of 147

background for 129

compatibility of 126

debate and dilemmas 145–50

development of 126, 138

direction of 106

elements of 135, 137–8

empirical prevalence and outcomes of 142–3

empirical research on 145

empirical results 142–5

governance idea 138–42

and governance network researchers 133

implementation of 149

inspiration, theoretical positions and exemplary countries 131–8

interactive forms of governance 148

location of 140

motives and evaluation criteria of 183

paradigm 162, 175

perspectives on 136

prevalence of 142

problems and challenges 148–9

regime-centred perspectives on 136

scholars 132

supporters 130

New Public Management (NPM) 13, 54–5, 74, 105, 125–8, 151–3, 155, 157, 159, 163–5, 177, 179, 182–3

actual effects of 67

ambiguity of 62

ambivalent relation to 106

arguing against 68

aspects of 62

beliefs and values of 72

compartmentalization of 176

comprehensive application of 57

criticism of 68–9

critique of 14

debate and dilemmas 67–73

doctrinal components of 58

economic and managerial components of 65

economic component of 162

economic logic of 62

economic side of 175

elements of 60

empirical results 63–7

features of 58

fierce criticism of 103

focus of 127

fragmentation caused by 75

fundamental idea of 70

governance diamond 63

governance idea 58–63

governance paradigm 61

grain of 108

headlines of 183

Hood’s definition of 65

Hood’s initial article on 68

inspiration, theoretical positions and exemplary countries 55–7

intellectual source of inspiration for 56

management ideas of 65

managerial aspect of 162, 180

managerialism marriage in 60

managerialist component of 52

managerial side of 179

marketization aspect of 58–9, 130

markets and managerialism 85

motives and evaluation criteria of 183

old public administration 29

paradigm 172, 183–4

performance indicators in 173

popularity of 85

positive effects of 66

predominance of 68

prescriptions 74

principal aspects of 59

principles of 64, 127–9

quasi-paradigm of 92

reaction to 175

reforms 55, 63–5, 67–8, 126

research on 163

revolution 6

scepticism towards 64

societal actors in 62

theoretical roots of 58, 68

Noordegraaf, M. 46–8

Nordic Administrative Reforms 83

norm-based governance 174

norm-based professional rule 13

norm-guided behaviour 48

NPG see New Public Governance (NPG)

NPM see New Public Management (NPM)

NWS see Neo-Weberian State (NWS)

OGI see Open Government Initiative (OGI)

Old Public Administration (OPA) 12

on-the-job training 162

OPA see Old Public Administration (OPA)

Open Government Initiative (OGI) 137

operational capacity 115

opportunistic behaviour 162

organizational capacity 15, 47, 115–16

organizational culture 161

organizational development theories 169

organizational performance 120

organizational reform 115

organizational schizophrenia 181

organizational strategy 106–7

organizational structure 31

organizational theory 92

basic assumptions in 169

organized anarchy 130

The Oxford Handbook of American Bureaucracy (Durant, R.) 27

paradigmatic reform programmes 3–4

parliamentary democracy 122

participation, dialogue-based forms of 143

participatory selection bias 147

pendulum metaphor 152

pendulum swings 153, 175

performance

effects on 168

evaluation criteria for 168

positive impact on 144–5

standards and measures of 50

performance management 64, 75, 78, 86, 126, 139–40, 146, 163, 175–6

system 85, 108

use of 50

policymaking 180

policy partnerships 127

political accountability 13–14

political metagovernors 134

political system 143

Political Turbulence: How Social Media Shape Collective Action (Margetts) 99–100

politicians 169–71

Pollitt, C. 10, 27, 55, 66–7, 74–8, 81, 86, 88

power 126

distance 70–71

poststructuralist theories of 133

predominant governance paradigm 4

principal-agent theory 13, 56, 60, 68, 135–6

private contractors 141

private firms 157

strategic management in 105

private organizations 126

private sector

governance 16

management styles 54

management techniques 54

private shareholders 70

private stakeholders 125, 149–50, 159

privatization 69–70

problematization 132

professional associations 45, 47, 50, 55, 62, 80, 155, 157, 174

professional autonomy 43, 136

professional behaviour 46

professional bureaucracy 49

traditional skills of 153

professional discretion 13

professional education 46–7

professional employees 162

professionalism 44, 46–8, 52

professionalization 77–8

professional knowledge, valuation of 37

professional management 175, 179

professional norms 37–40, 44–7, 49–50, 53, 109, 155, 157, 162, 175, 182

and competences of 109–10

professional quality 48

professional rule 13, 37–8, 43–4, 72, 151, 156–9, 161–3, 165, 170–71, 174, 179

and bureaucracy 49, 179

debate and dilemmas 49–53

empirical results 45–9

governance idea 43–5

inspiration, theoretical positions and exemplary countries 38–42

knowledge element of 52

separation of 50

professional standards 175, 179

professional status 38, 51

level of 40

professions

concept of 38

delegate governance to 38–9

identity and motivation of 46

institutionalist sociology of 41

internal organization of 39

neo-Weberian sociology of 39

sociology of 51

traditional sociology of 37–8

pro-social motivation 165

PSM see public service motivation (PSM)

public administration 3

challenges of 153

form and function of 6

politics 16

public bureaucracy 12–13, 72, 77

alleged problems of 1

consequences of 56

public choice 13, 56, 60, 68

public decision-making 133

public employees 13–14, 159

demotivation of 68–9

professional norms and competences of 109–10

public governance 2, 9–11, 16, 44, 62, 85, 88–9, 103, 105, 126–7, 132–3, 145, 150, 156

analysis and evaluation of 5

aspects of 4

challenge for 128

definition, content and development of 9–18

democratic legitimacy of 139

digitalization of 95

dimensions of 141–2

efficiency of 144

emergence of 6

interorganizational view of 129

and management 1

marketization and contractualization of 110–11

‘moving target’ of 182

outcomes of 108

paradigms 1–4

phases of 118

system of 9

transformations of 153

public governance diamond 18–22, 118, 141, 153–4

axes of 21

centralized control 18

horizontal coordination 18

societal involvement 19–20

use of incentives 18

use of value articulation 18

public interest 161

public management 10, 69, 84, 108, 144–5

importance for 180

reform 55, 84, 86–7, 90

reorganization 56

transformation of 180

Public Management Reform (Pollitt and Bouckaert) 74

public managers 6, 15, 17, 61, 67, 69, 72, 76, 78, 82, 84, 86, 88, 100, 102, 105, 108–29, 135, 149–50, 159, 179, 182

actions of 167

definition of 122

preferences of 110

style of management 123

public organizations 107–8, 111, 113, 181

ability of 165

characteristics of 107

daily operations of 109–10

one-size-fits-all solution for 156

stability of 3

public policy, influence on 132

public–private collaboration 141

public–private partnerships 66, 127, 129, 175

public school system 2

public sector 2–3, 24, 37, 54–5, 67–8, 70, 89, 91, 100–102, 107, 129–30, 139–40, 166–7, 169, 171, 176–8, 181

changing and overlapping paradigms 178–84

contemporary 84

context 167–8

contribution of 110

co-production and co-creation in 135

definition of 166

development of 1, 5, 12

features of 142

fragmentation and compartmentalization of 127

governance 25, 96, 156

managerial challenges within paradigms 172–8

marketization of 59

match/mismatch between roles in 169–72

motivation and competences of 145

parts and levels of 2

performance management in 135–6

public sector reform 1, 5–6, 13, 16–18, 55–6, 65–6, 68, 83–5, 102, 120, 166

public service 53, 102, 108–9, 112, 128, 135, 155

co-production of 126

digitalization of 89

individual professional providers of 45

professionals in 37

strategic management in 105

public service motivation (PSM) 46, 52, 111, 120, 125, 128

public service production 136–7, 151

public solutions, co-producers of 129

public value 105, 112, 114–15, 123–4

articulation of 117–18

concept of 109

consensus about 122

formulations 117

governance 105–6, 111

outcomes 109, 113, 172

production of 15, 106, 108–10, 112

propositions 115–16, 164

research on 110

solicitors of 124

strategic pursuit of 113

study of 110

Public Value Management (PVM) 3, 14–15, 105–9, 116–17, 119–20, 151, 155–7, 164–5, 171, 177

achievement of 107

collaborative governance approach to 111–12

debate and dilemmas 120–24

development of 106

diamond shapes of 159

elaborations of 106

empirical results 119–20

favourable conditions for 114

framework 121

governance diamond for 116, 118

governance idea 114–18

inspiration, theoretical positions and exemplary countries 109–14

managerial perspective of 113

original development of 113

perspective objects 105

public leadership based on 114

public value outcome in 173

relevance and impact of 120

stakeholder perspective in 157

status of 106, 120–22

understanding and analysing 112

PVM see Public Value Management (PVM)

quality management 175

‘quality of democracy’ category 82

rational choice institutionalism 133

rational choice theory 131

reaffirmation 77

Reagan, Ronald 6, 55, 64, 107

re-budgeting 115

red tape literature 32

reformulation 149

regulated self-regulation 143–4

regulative bargain 51

reintegration 90, 96

Reinventing Government (Osborne and Gaebler) 64

reinventions 12

relational governance 132–3

relational systems of concepts 11

representative democracy 80

Weberian notions of 83

research-based education 39–40

research-based organizations 1

research communities 76

resource 129

coordination of 134

mobilization 138, 148

strategic mobilization of 129

Rhodes, R. A. W. 121–2, 153, 171

risk aversion 70–71

ruled-based governance 27

rules 24–9, 31–5, 44, 49, 51, 81, 108, 131, 143–4, 151, 157, 161, 163–4

salary systems 60

schizophrenic organization 181

schools 129

sectorization 174

self-evaluation 43, 143

self-interested utility optimizers 156

service-delivery systems 143

service partnerships 127

service production 126–7, 150, 180

service quality, drivers of 128–9

shadow of hierarchy 140

shareholders

private 70

profits by 107–8

sharing power 180

Sillince, J. A. A. 34

silos 61, 127, 139–40, 155

situational interpretation 131

socialism 64

socialization 162

social media 91, 93–4, 104

policy 93–4

practices 100

role of 99–100

social reality 158

social science 152

social security 71

social support networks 146

societal involvement 19–20, 156–7

society 168

sociological institutionalism 133

sociology of professions 39

specialization 31

stakeholders 1, 32, 107, 111–12, 117–18, 168, 172–3, 183

state-crafting 86–7

stateness 42

stewardship theory 136

strategic development 180

strategic management theories 105, 109, 111, 169

strategic triangle 115–16

street-level bureaucrats 33

structural coupling 126

structural differentiation 176

systematic evaluations 66

systems theory 126

tax payments 101

technological change 89–90, 92

technological innovations 90

theology 37

third-order governance 9, 134

top-down government, hierarchical model of 132

transformational leadership 19, 120

Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 81

Trilateral Commission 55

trust-based learning processes 138

trust-based self-organization 149

unanimity 169

urban development partnerships 127

value articulation 80, 117

use of 18–19

value-chain management 175

value congruence studies 120

value propositions 119

value systems of politics 177–8

Wanna, J. 121–2, 171

Weberian bureaucracy 3, 5, 77, 151

characteristics of 28

Weberian notions of representative democracy 83

Weber, M. 10, 26–8, 151

analysis of bureaucratic organization 153

bureaucracy model 12

model of bureaucracy 85

theory of bureaucracy 85

Western democracies 55

Westminster model 113–14, 122

wickedness of problems 128

willing hybrids 47–8

Wilsonian bureaucracy 5

work environment 181–2

workplace well-being 144

world economy 1