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How to Conduct a Practice-based Study

Problems and Methods, Second Edition

Silvia Gherardi

Practice-based approaches to knowing, learning, innovating, and managing have thrived in recent years. Calling upon numerous narratives from a range of research fields, the author offers insight into the many possibilities of practice research, highlighting the inextricable links between humans and technology as the key emergent trend in management studies. Developing an innovative posthumanist approach, this novel book offers a useful and insightful compass for the navigation of practice-based studies through the lens of exemplar vignettes from internationally acclaimed researchers.
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Index

Silvia Gherardi

accountability 8, 33, 1413, 162, 174, 207, 220
feminist accountability 231
normative accountability of practice 10, 61, 108
result-based accountability (RBA) 117
action, theories of 81
activity theory 150, 209, 2368
Actor-Network Theory (ANT) 3, 18, 83, 149, 1839, 226, 236, 238
acts of presence 4043, 54, 75
aesthetics 57, 60, 171, 175
cultural-aesthetic approach 235
judgement 14951, 154
organizational aesthetics 75, 215
affect
ordinary affect 165, 168
turn to 1636
affiliative objects 91, 93, 104
agency 4, 834, 8892, 96, 103, 143, 1635, 177, 1812, 1837, 202, 21315, 227, 23940
agencement 177, 1818, 199, 217, 219, 226
distributed 812, 196
alignment 87, 131, 194
Anderson, B. 164, 219
announcement 389, 11112
appraisal vocabulary 1536
arbitrages 17
arrangements 17, 32, 71
artefacts 5, 21, 289, 32, 48, 714, 87, 1223, 142, 163
as affect generators 1656
articulation work 1518, 32, 35, 39, 142
Ashcraft, K.L. 162, 238
attachment 79, 144, 15053, 168, 1735
sociology of attachment 1489, 152, 174
attention
distributed 3942, 445
rules of 12024
autoconfrontation 20910
awareness 42, 54, 60
back stage and front stage 16062
bad news, giving 12931, 147
Barad, K. 84, 100, 177, 224, 239, 240
Beach, K. 20
Becker, H.S. 178, 201, 211
‘being there’ 43, 78
Benozzo, A. 216, 244
Bergman, J.R. 1278
Bidet, A. 98
bike commuting as practice 14
Bispo, M. 88, 122
BlackBerry service 85, 86, 104
Blackler, F. 89, 90, 150, 170
Blomberg, J. 19
bodies
gendered bodies 56, 7073
knowledgeable 56, 74, 76, 102
managerial athleticism 74
Borch, C. 164, 191
border resources 4754, 247
Borzeix, A. 1819, 33, 92, 115, 126, 215
boundary objects 88, 935, 215
Bourdieu, P. 10, 30, 48, 656, 80, 186, 205, 229
Braidotti, R. 56, 78, 84, 239
British Journal of Sociology 19
Brown, A.D. 134, 144
Brown, J.S. 22, 23, 48, 60, 234
Bruner, J. 2, 143
Bruni, A. 20, 27, 29, 72, 73, 90, 91, 202, 206, 212, 221, 222
Buch, A. 221, 230, 236
Butler, J. 7, 71, 83
Button, G. 1819, 128
Cacciatori, E. 92, 945
calculation 20, 934
Callon, M. 7, 83, 1834, 187, 233
care 176
ethics of care 158, 160, 1623, 175
in practice 160, 17071
logic of care 160, 162
matters of care 159, 174
Carlsen, A. 192223
Chia, R. 81, 84, 143, 184
Childers, S.M. 244, 248
Clarke, A. 21, 230, 231, 233
Clegg, S. 84, 1589, 180, 184
Clot, Y. 124, 205, 209
communication
as practice 2, 18, 857, 125
camouflaging of 1468
communicative constitution of organizing 1256, 238
Computer-supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 35, 220
Conein, B. 19
connectedness in action 18081
contextualism 180, 200
Cook, S. 61, 153, 257
Cooper, R. 82, 18081
cooperation
and conflict 98, 109, 120, 149
cooperative work 96, 120, 142, 221
see also Computer-supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)
coordination
of multiple activities 1023, 214
tacit 112
coordination centres 30, 478
Bakerloo Line control room 359, 54
definition 349
emergency call centres 445, 54
Paris RER A line 4044, 54, 76, 133
Corbin, J. 15, 16, 17
Corradi, G. 32, 232, 236
couriers, working practice of 1114
cruel optimism 1678, 175
Cunliffe, A. 134, 204, 223
Czarniawska, B. 34, 143, 187, 208, 211
Dall’Alba, G. 9, 81, 236
Deleuze, G. 4, 84, 1812, 184, 192, 241
Denis, J. 118, 119
discourse analysis 126
discretion as practice, 117, 128
discursive practices 5, 47, 49, 51, 616, 70, 126, 133
anchoring in 30
and social learning 74, 127
institutional 12732
material-discursive 9091, 114, 117
telling stories to build a community 23, 143
to overcome absence and distance 13943
distal view 83
distance work 34, 40, 139
distributed cognition 18, 33
division of labour 30, 36, 39
docta ignorantia 478, 534, 205
Drew, P. 127, 128
Duguid, P. 22, 23, 48, 60, 234
dwelling vs building 76
Eikeland, O. 209
elbow contact 3940
Elkjaer, B. 236
Elsbach, K. 121
embeddedness 20, 96, 159, 179, 234, 237
embodiment 70, 748, 85, 1634, 21618, 237, 246
Emery, F. 179
‘emotional labour’ 12
engagement 6, 23, 44, 162
Engeström, Y. 17, 18, 19, 89, 90, 92, 150, 211, 236
environment, equipped 99100, 1024, 243, 246
entanglement 845, 89, 92, 103, 148, 163, 232, 240, 244
entwinement 229
epistemic practices 22, 121, 153, 160, 163, 1634, 2312, 240, 242
epistemology
of ‘becoming’ 4, 82, 84, 166, 172, 18085
of practice 81, 84, 85, 172
onto-epistemology 4, 239
post-epistemologies 4, 166, 238, 244
post-positivist 2269, 244
relational 823, 239
substantialist 83, 85
equipped environment 99104, 243, 246
ethics 8, 148, 149, 151, 154, 1568, 165, 243
as/in practice 15962, 175
corporeal 1623, 175
organizational 158, 162, 168, 175
ethnography
affective 6, 201, 21518, 224, 247
cognitive 20
of communication 1267
of objects 21114, 224, 247
ethnomethodology 89, 18, 32, 106, 117, 122, 126, 156, 226, 228, 233
experience 623, 745, 117, 155, 17072, 188, 218, 240
feelings 152, 165
Feldman, M. 10, 82, 106
Feminist theorizing 22, 84, 90, 158, 162, 203, 220, 226, 230, 2312
new materialism 239, 244
Fenwick, T. 84
field of presence 757
fluctuating configurations 133
formativeness 6, 151, 16975, 176, 226, 2412, 247
Fotaki, M. 164, 231
Foucault, M. 6, 158, 205, 244
Fox, N. 84
Fox, S. 20, 32, 157, 180, 181
Fraenkel, B. 92, 115, 126
Fragmented knowledge 27, 32
Friedberg, E. 109
Gagliardi, P. 57, 64
Garfinkel, H. 8, 11, 25, 3031, 33, 81, 106, 157, 180, 228, 243
Geiger, D. 105, 1389
gender as a social practice 7073
gerontology/geontopower 232
Gherardi, S. 9, 10, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 35, 47, 48, 52, 57, 58, 60, 61, 64, 69, 73, 79, 109, 132, 142, 151, 1656, 179, 183, 1935, 202, 205, 206, 216, 226, 234, 239, 244
Giddens, A. 10, 30, 31, 48, 81, 219, 228
Goffman, E. 21, 40, 41, 53, 55, 100, 133, 160
Goodwin, C. 45, 689
Goodwin, M. 45, 69
Grosjean, M. 17, 35, 445, 93, 11517
Grosjean, S. and Boneville, L. 100101
Guattari, F. 4, 84, 1812, 184, 192, 241
Gumperz, J.J. 126, 128
Habermas, J. 1369
Haraway, D. 7, 22, 90, 220, 231, 239, 240
hearing 615
Heath, C. 18, 19, 349, 55, 59
Hennion, A. 25, 14952, 174
Heritage, J. 1278
highlighting 69
Hindmarsh, J. 32, 35, 59, 126, 188
Hopwood, N. 143, 237
Hughes, E.C. 39, 41
Hughes, J. 19
human and nonhuman 13, 32, 89, 92, 122, 123, 185, 187, 236, 238, 240
Hutchins, E. 1819, 4042
identity 15053, 158, 171, 176, 188, 194, 211
and gender 714
collective 14, 24, 25, 111
discursively produced 127, 132, 144
Iedema, R. 84, 164, 239
improvisational choreography 49, 99104, 214, 246
information and communication technology (ICT) 15, 29, 32, 34, 120
infrastructure 5, 69, 94, 108, 141
definition 968
discursive 243, 247
normative 1058, 1223, 157, 208, 247
social 226, 243, 247
technological 29, 51, 95, 104, 142, 246
tiny 968
Ingold, T. 103, 203
innovation 23, 113, 120, 126, 173, 223
institutional conversation 1279, 146
institutional interaction 12932
Introna, L. 88, 92
interview with the double 6, 10910, 201, 204, 20511, 224, 247
intra-action 84, 100, 21617, 23942
invisibility
in virtual encounters 1413, 147
invisible work 15, 34, 98, 115, 11719
of technologies 98
Jacopin, E. 19
joint regulation 1089, 123
Jordan, S. 135
Joseph, I. 19, 35, 40, 115, 133
judgement
aesthetic 6, 57, 61, 62, 779, 1515, 174, 247
ethical 1489, 1559, 1618, 175, 247
Katila, S. 164, 21718, 225
Keevers, L. 117, 210
Kemmis, S. 187, 237
Kenny, K. 164
Knorr Cetina, K. 5, 89, 153, 170, 2334, 239
knotworking 1718
knowing
and doing 5, 47, 83, 125, 173, 234
and learning 5, 44, 58
and practicing 23, 4851, 2279, 242
as situated activity 10, 19, 231, 235, 247
embodied 58, 656, 745, 79, 163, 216, 247
in spiral case study 1935
knowing-in-practice 5, 227, 3035, 60, 69, 153, 247
sensible 5, 5665, 247
transformative 6, 21923, 247
knowledge
corporeal 57, 61, 768
distributed 9, 4041
elusive knowledges 5, 57, 77, 79, 2024, 224
fragmented 279, 32
narrative 2, 1434, 247
pointers 6970
practical 18, 22, 24, 3032
society 89
tacit 6, 478, 144, 153, 180
transmission 54, 69, 14553, 247
Lacoste, M. 17, 11516, 117
Lamprou, E. 170
Landri, P. 143, 154
Langage et Travail 115, 126
language see discursive practices
language-game 228
langue and parole 1056, 109
Lather, P. 2445, 248
Latour, B. 18, 19, 26, 34, 84, 8993, 148, 159, 165, 183, 187, 202, 211, 233, 234, 238, 239
Lave, J. 20, 21, 22, 33, 100, 234
law 40, 196200
Law, J. 2, 4, 18, 19, 71, 82, 83, 103, 107, 146, 183, 184, 187, 190, 204, 212, 21314, 224, 238, 239, 242
learning 5, 24, 447, 50, 54, 637, 107, 235, 246
definition 47
organizational 22, 30, 35, 195, 234, 236
situated learning theory 9, 18, 20, 22, 47, 113, 236
Leonardi, P.M. 85, 88
lexicon of practice 4, 84, 132, 1745, 2457
Llewellyn, N. 31, 33, 126
logic of appropriateness and logic of consequentiality 107, 133
London Underground 338, 188
Lorino, Ph. 202, 228, 236
Lorimer, H. 80, 203
Luff, P. 18, 19, 34, 35, 38, 39, 55
MacIntyre, A. 107, 1567
Mack, K. 153
maintaining a common orientation 5, 35, 414, 53, 54, 243, 247
mangle, of practices 7, 1856, 200
March, J.G. 1067, 120
Martin, P. 7071, 153
Massumi, B. 164, 242
materiality see sociomaterial practices
materialsemiotic practice 5, 126, 134, 140, 212, 247
mathematics 1534
Maynard, D. 12831
Mead, G.H. 1921, 81, 236
memory
live 92, 94, 103
mnemonic tools 935, 104
organizational 925
Merleau-Ponty, M. 75, 78, 80, 83, 104, 236
metaphor
climbing metaphor 25, 99, 105, 226, 243
imbrication 85
scaffolding 456
theatrical 160
texture 17780
mobilizing border resources 4753, 247
Mol, A. 2, 3, 146, 160, 187, 202, 212, 225, 238
multiplicity 2, 182, 21214
nature, external and internal 1378
negotiated order 48, 1078, 122
Nicolini, D. 7, 10, 18, 19, 23, 32, 65, 69, 94, 113, 126, 132, 1445, 194, 195, 199, 206, 209, 230, 231, 239
non-representationalism (or morethen) 78, 80, 203
normal order, reproducing 54
object
epistemic 94, 171, 214
of knowledge 824, 154, 233
of practice 6, 39, 148, 15053, 173, 1745
Oddone, I. 205, 209
operating theatre 2215
Organization 19
Orlikowski, W. 10, 24, 46, 82, 848, 106, 219, 234, 238, 239
Orr, J. 92, 144
Østerlund, C. 219, 239
Pareyson, L. 151, 16973, 176
Paris RER A line 4044, 54
Parolin, L. 188
participation
competent 5, 20, 457, 51, 236
differentiating 41
frame 41
modes of 423
participatory appropriation 6970
participatory design 87, 211, 221
passion 51, 64, 14955, 185, 241
Pepper, S. 180, 200
performance
appropriate 108, 243
as improvisational choreography 100103
internal appraisal of 154
practice as 31, 99, 151
performativity 2, 7, 83, 204, 2234, 240, 242
of gender 7071
of technology 86, 103
Perrotta, M. 68, 1712, 195, 1968
persistence 97
phenomenology 9, 19, 30, 746, 80, 81, 83, 99, 117, 122, 203, 2289, 236, 240
Pickering, A. 7, 1856, 200, 233, 234, 240
placeness 21619
Poggio, B. 70, 143
Polanyi, M. 45, 48, 59, 60, 151, 180, 205
post-qualitative methodologies 244
post-sociality 5, 89
power
affiliative 88, 92, 103, 109
and texture of practice 179, 199
coercive 1968
effects 198, 205
mobilization 11112, 2245
of objects 104, 113, 124
practitioner empowerment 6, 113, 204, 209, 210, 221
relations 20, 56, 93, 106, 138, 1457, 158, 162, 187, 188, 231
practice
as locus of working, learning, innovating 23, 81, 85, 122, 126, 146
change as refinement 156, 174
definitions 1011, 76, 989, 125, 1567
interwoven 148, 17881, 183
recursiveness 100, 106, 163
reproduction 11, 163, 198
stabilization of 1968
practice approach
as performative method 2425
posthumanist 164, 22632, 238, 242
principles 2, 8, 22, 47, 57, 148, 159, 163, 177, 185
practice-based studies
and consumption 190
and ethnography 202, 215
and Information Systems 10, 87, 21921
bandwagon of 226, 2328
definition 6, 9, 30, 230
origin 1819
practice-turn 56, 89, 234, 237, 239
special issue journals 32, 236
pragmatism 19, 203, 221, 223, 226, 236, 240
praxeology 223, 230
praxiography 3, 202
prescription
ordinary prescription 5, 105, 108, 11820, 1234, 208, 247
prescriptive relays 11820
presence
acts of 4043, 54, 247
embodiment as presence 749
proceduralization, of practices 114, 117, 123
processes 204
production games 13540, 152
professional jurisdiction 50, 70, 122, 141, 1967
professional vision 625, 745, 207
projective interviewing 1625
protocols 123, 139
following 11518
proximal view 83
Pullen, A. 157, 1623
reading of a scene 54
Reckwitz, A. 66, 1656, 237
relational materialism 83
relational work 15
remembering process 925
repetition 99, 108, 124, 1545, 191
representation
material representations 6970
mental (schema) 12021, 124
reproducing the normal order 54
reproduction
medically assisted 195200
of society 31, 205
Rhodes, C. 157, 1623, 245
Rouse, J. 10, 11, 108, 144, 148
routine, theory of 10, 106
performative and ostensive aspects 106
rules 5, 247
ambiguity of rules 47, 107, 109, 123
as resources for practice 105
attention rules 12022
change in rules 1078
organizational 28
production rules 10913, 122
written and oral expression to sustain 11318
safety as social practice 65, 1926
Samra-Fredericks, D. 136, 137, 138
Sandberg, J. 9, 10, 81, 168, 229, 236
scaffolding 447, 534, 145, 246
Scalfi-Eghenter, A. 201
Schatzki, T.R. 4, 7, 10, 11, 98, 99, 148, 1867, 18990, 221, 230, 234, 236, 237
Schultze, U. 205, 219
Schütz, A. 9, 1920, 30, 81, 122, 228, 236
Scott, S.V. 88, 219
self-confrontation 20910
sensemaking 9091, 1345, 147, 159
senses 11, 56, 57
attunement 757, 165, 216, 245
hearing 612
senses of place 153
sensing 656
sensuousness of practice 79
sight 6870
smell 624
taste 645
touch 5860
with tools 668
Shotter, J. 62, 152, 172, 204
Shove, E. 14, 104, 190, 214, 237
sites of knowing 23
situated action, paradigm 5, 7, 1822, 33, 246
situation 2022, 3031, 43, 112, 122, 134
situational territory 53, 55, 1024, 160
social worlds 30, 81, 93, 96, 230
Sociologie du Travail 19
sociomateriality 2, 5, 25, 815, 104, 143, 165, 166, 219
equipped environment 99100, 1024, 243
of technology 858
sociomaterial relations 15, 92, 104, 120, 127, 161, 183
spiral case-study 6, 1959, 247
spirit of a place 153
St Pierre, E. 239, 2445, 248
stance 17
pragmatic 30
Star, S.L. 5, 15, 34, 69, 93, 968, 23031, 233
Stierand, M. 64
storytelling 10, 134, 1435, 147, 153, 194, 247
strategy as practice 10, 136
Strati, A. 7, 27, 5760, 75, 778, 110, 1545, 169, 176, 177, 180, 209, 215, 242
Strauss, A. 15, 16, 17, 34, 98, 107, 142, 236
structuration theory 219, 228
subjectivity/intersubjectivity 14, 64, 78, 1378, 146, 147, 165
Suchman, L. 7, 19, 21, 33, 35, 45, 534, 87, 92, 140, 181, 220, 234
Swidler, A. 178
symbolic interactionism 7, 9, 230
tacit knowledge 6, 478, 144, 153, 180, 205, 207
talking
to overcome absence and distance 1339
to understand 13943
while practicing 1257, 246
task
limitation of analysis 1516, 40, 117
taste-making 1526
technology 28
and sociomaterial practices 86, 88, 98, 103
artificial nutrition 160
as social practice 30, 34, 867, 236, 246
in Bakerloo Line control room 37
in medically assisted reproduction 195200
supporting collaboration 39
Teil, G. 623, 69, 149
Telemedicine/teleconsultancy 2530, 32, 132, 13942
temporality
timespace 92, 177, 187, 18890, 247
rhythm 18992
rhythmanalysis 1912
texture
of organizing 142, 146, 147, 18081, 185
of practices 1, 3, 6, 7, 29, 53, 73, 141, 1779, 184, 199, 247
spiral case-study for mapping 1929
Thrift, N. 79, 80, 164, 1889, 203
Tiddi, A. 1112
Translation
process 923, 123
sociology of 149, 238, 239
Trist, E.L. 179
Tsoukas, H. 10, 184, 204, 229
umbrella concept of practice-based studies 6, 226, 234, 236
Vachhani, S.J. 162, 164, 168
validity claims 1378
visibility 1, 44, 54, 244
in virtual encounters 142
von Hippel, E. 12021
Vygotsky, L. 236
‘war stories’ 51, 1445
weaving and glossing a text 17981, 192
Weick, K. 34, 76, 134, 147, 155
Wenger, E. 7, 1819, 20, 22
Whalen, J. 19, 49, 100103
Whalen, M. 19, 49, 100103
Willems, T. 65, 76
work
as practical activity 9
Schütz’s definition 9
working practices
as accomplishment 811
as dwelling in a practice 60, 76, 81, 1512, 216
viewed from outside 108, 142, 205, 208
viewed from within 108, 142, 205, 208
viewed in the circuit of reproduction 108, 142, 1968, 205
working things out 17
workplace conversations 1334
Workplace Studies (WS) 18, 33, 221, 236
workspace constitution 4041, 534, 79, 102, 119, 188, 215
writing
anthropology of 11415
as research practice 78, 92, 143, 2023, 21617, 219, 2312, 245
Yakhlef, A. 77
Yanow, D. 19, 61, 68, 153