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Rethinking International Relations

Bertrand Badie

In this thought-provoking book, Bertrand Badie argues that the traditional paradigms of international relations are no longer sustainable, and that ignorance of these shifting systems and of alternative models is a major source of contemporary international conflict and disorder. Through a clear examination of the political, historical and social context, Badie illuminates the challenges and possibilities of an ‘intersocial’ and multilateral approach to international relations.
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Chapter 4: An inter-social world

Bertrand Badie


The “great international transformation” mainly resulted in the emergence of an “inter-social system” which henceforth permanently challenges the traditional inter-state system. This new inter-social system covers the major part of the new international relations and is addressed as such in this chapter. It may be considered through a multitude of new international actors who are more and more successfully competing with states in the international arena: religious actors, corporations, NGOs, and also many kinds of individual actors (migrants, investors, consumers, and even public opinion). These actors promote new and impactful transnational relations by getting around sovereign inter-state relations; they also transform the traditional international agenda by pointing out international social issues (environment, food security, human rights). They are also setting up new international relations, bridging or not the relations between societies.

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