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Rethinking International Relations

Bertrand Badie

In this thought-provoking book, Bertrand Badie argues that the traditional paradigms of international relations are no longer sustainable, and that ignorance of these shifting systems and of alternative models is a major source of contemporary international conflict and disorder. Through a clear examination of the political, historical and social context, Badie illuminates the challenges and possibilities of an ‘intersocial’ and multilateral approach to international relations.
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Index

Bertrand Badie

9/11 attacks 7, 39

Africa 3, 4, 32–3, 125

decolonization 28–31

inter-social relations 61, 64–6, 68

invention of IR 11, 12, 14, 15

powerlessness of state power 77–8, 79, 81

regional constructions 88, 89, 91, 95

territorialization and deterritorialization 47, 49–51, 52

war 105–6, 107, 108, 110, 111, 113, 114

alliances 3, 15, 22, 38, 40, 81–2, 99, 119

alterity 12, 114, 126

Amnesty International 59, 61

Angell, Norman 23

Annan, Kofi 35, 114, 127, 128

APEC (Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation) 95

apolarity 38, 80, 134–5

Arab League 88, 91

Arab Spring 67, 68, 84, 120–21

Arab world 4, 14, 28, 31, 40, 79, 80–81, 83–4, 110–11, 120

inter-social relations 58, 61–2, 66–7, 68–9

regional constructions 88, 91

territorialization and deterritorialization 50, 54

Aron, Raymond 119

ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 91

Asia 3–4, 11, 12, 15, 28, 45, 79

inter-social relations 58, 62, 60, 68

regional constructions 87, 89–90, 91, 93, 94–5, 96

“asymmetric wars” 103, 109

balance of power 5, 63, 72, 78, 114, 117

after the “great transformation” 27, 30, 34, 35

invention of IR 13, 18, 20–21, 24

Banfield, Edward 63

Ben Ali, Zin al Abedin 67

Berlin Wall 3, 9, 21, 24, 27, 37, 39, 80, 104

“big men” 30, 64, 107, 110

bilateralism 117–20, 133

bipolarity 3, 23–4, 37–40, 69, 104

post-bipolar systems 3, 38, 95, 132, 133, 134–5

Bodin, Jean 21

Bolsonaro, Jair 123

Bouazizi, Mohamed 68

Bourgeois, Léon 118

Brexit 94, 98

BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) 99

centralization 9, 72–3, 132

China 4, 38, 52, 80, 82, 124, 125

invention of IR 12, 13–14

regional constructions 89–90, 91, 94, 95

city states 14, 15–17

CJEU (Court of Justice of the European Union) 98

“clash of civilizations” 37, 39, 109

Clausewitz, Carl von 3, 8, 10, 23, 39, 102, 103, 104, 107, 112, 114, 119

climate change 37, 57, 108, 121, 123, 127

Cold War 2, 9, 24, 81, 84, 88, 95, 104, 115, 119, 124, 131–2, 133

after the “great transformation” 27, 32, 37–8, 40–41

collapsed states see failed States

colonialism/colonization 13, 28–9, 45, 47, 49, 61, 77–8, 95, 106, 112, 126, 131

see also decolonization; post-colonialism

communication 32, 33, 35–6, 43, 51–3, 57, 63, 71, 82, 122, 126, 133

competition, international 4, 6, 8, 9, 72, 73, 76–7, 79, 82, 133, 134

after the “great transformation” 30–31, 33, 34, 39, 40

inter-social relations 58, 62–3, 65

invention of IR 12–13, 14, 15, 16–17, 18, 20, 22, 24

power see power competition

regional constructions 90–91, 92, 96, 98–9

territorialization and deterritorialization 45–6, 47–8, 51, 53

concertation 123, 128

connectivity 51, 53

conservatism, international 1–2, 3–4, 5, 83, 87, 88–9, 92, 112–13, 119

“contact groups” 29, 133

continuity 3, 28, 101, 104

counter-socialization 60, 61–2, 73, 113

cultural security 66

culture 2, 4–6, 9, 64, 71, 72, 73, 75

after the “great transformation” 27, 29, 30–31, 33, 35–6, 39

diplomacy 122, 126

invention of IR 11–13, 18

regional constructions 93, 95

war 101, 102, 106, 108–9, 111, 112

da Silva, Ignazio Lula 80

de Gaulle, Charles 91, 123

De Jure belli ac Pacis 21

Déby, Idriss 78

decentralization 40, 46, 54, 58, 67, 72–3, 83, 93, 126, 132–5

decolonization 3, 6, 75, 78–9, 88, 131

after the “great transformation” 27, 28–31, 32, 41

diplomacy 122, 126, 129

territorialization and deterritorialization 49, 50

war 105, 112

deliberation 113, 133–4

delimitation 17, 43–4, 50, 74

Delos League 81, 82

demography 1, 34, 68, 121

Deng Xiao Ping 89

dependence 34, 67, 75, 77, 124, 133

depolarization 6, 9, 27, 37–40, 41, 80

deterritorialization 6, 43

globalization 46, 47, 49–51, 54

sovereignty 43, 46, 47, 49–50, 53, 54

technological drivers of 43, 46, 49, 51–4

development 16, 28–9, 33, 58–9, 63–4, 78, 90, 98, 108, 126–7, 128

deviance 7, 13, 29–30, 31, 68, 75, 110

differentiation 73, 76

diplomacy 6, 19, 75, 117, 133

after the “great transformation” 29, 39–40

anonymous diplomacy 124

classic diplomacy 117–20

club diplomacy 29, 133

economic diplomacy 119, 124–5

globalization 117, 118, 119, 122, 124, 125–6, 128, 129

influence diplomacy 123–4

inter-social relations 59–60, 64, 67, 68–9

multilateralism 118, 119, 127–9

new actors 119, 120–22, 126–7, 128

new functions 122–5

new social routes 125–7

NGOs 120, 123, 126, 128

private diplomacy 6, 59

public diplomacy 122, 123–4

public opinion 118, 120, 122–4, 127, 128

regional constructions 87, 98–9

sovereignty 117–18, 119, 121, 127, 128, 129

war 111, 115

Westphalian system 117, 118, 123, 128–9

Dramé, Lamine 61

Durkheim, Émile 7, 8–9, 56, 89, 110

Duterte, Rodrigo 123

economics (international) 14, 33, 74

ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council) 127–8

empires 12–14, 16, 17, 19, 43, 45, 47, 72

enemy, concept of 15, 27, 38, 39, 40

environment security 65–6

Europe 1, 2, 4, 6, 72, 77, 82, 131

decolonization 28–9

diplomacy 118, 120, 122, 124, 125

globalization 32–3

inter-social relations 57, 58, 64–5, 69

invention of IR 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 19, 21–3

powerlessness of state power 77–8, 79, 84

regional constructions 87, 88–9, 91, 92–3, 94, 95, 97–8

territorialisation and deterritorialization 43–5

war 101, 103–4, 105

European Community/European Union 88, 91, 92–3, 94, 95, 97–8

European Concert 2, 3, 5, 23, 97, 118

Evans-Pritchard, Edward E. 15

extensive imperial culture 12, 13

failed states 15, 29–30, 38, 51, 75, 82, 105–6

federalism 87

feudal system 17, 19, 43–4, 72–3

firms (multinational) 35, 47–8, 53, 57–8, 60–61, 78, 120–21, 125, 128

food security 64–5

Foreign Affairs 53

foreign policy 4, 44–6, 82, 84–5, 90, 115

after the “great transformation” 27–8, 29–30, 41

diplomacy 122, 123–5

inter-social relations 56, 58, 60, 68

invention of IR 13–14, 20–21

fragmented political systems 14–17, 38, 50–51, 64, 72

French Revolution 27, 103–4, 118

G7 nations 1–2, 29, 126, 133

GDP per inhabitant 32–3, 68

Geertz, Clifford 4

geopolitics 17, 32, 44–6, 48–9, 90, 102

gladiators, states as 22, 24, 38, 53, 58, 71, 77, 82, 101, 114

Global compact 35, 128

global integration 60–61, 74, 96

global interactions 40–41

Global South 1, 24, 51, 69, 73, 75, 78, 83–4, 96

after the “great transformation” 28–31, 32–4, 36–8

globalization 4, 6, 8–9

deterritorialization 46, 47, 49–51, 54

diplomacy 117, 118, 119, 122, 124, 125–6, 128, 129

interdependence 32, 33–6

inter-social relations 56, 63, 65

invention of IR 14, 23

mobility 32, 36–7

regional constructions 87, 88, 92, 95, 97

sovereignty 32–7, 41, 74

state 71, 72, 74, 76, 79–80, 82, 83–4

territorialization and deterritorialization 46, 47, 49, 50–51, 54

GONGOs (government organized non-governmental organizations) 60

Great Illusion 23

great transformation 17, 27–8, 133

decolonization 27, 28–31, 41

depolarization 27, 37–40, 41

global interactions 40–41

globalization and sovereignty 32–7, 41

Grotius, Hugo 18, 21–3, 35, 102

Guaidó, Juan 67

Habermas, Jürgen 52

health security 65

heartland 45

hegemony 9–10, 71–2, 76, 80, 82, 91–2, 112, 123–5, 131–2, 134

Hertz, John 20

historical sociology of IR 2–5

Hobbes, Thomas 3, 6, 8, 10, 38–9, 45–6, 76, 84, 119

invention of IR 18, 21–4

states as gladiators 22, 24, 38, 53, 58, 71, 77, 82, 101, 114

war 104–6, 112, 114–15

Hobsbawm, Eric 107

Hocking, Brian 59

Human Development Index 108

human rights 59, 61, 66–7, 119, 126–7

human security 1, 7, 9, 59, 63–4, 108, 113–14, 126–7

humiliation 7–8, 13, 31, 33, 63, 66, 79, 82, 84, 104–5, 107–8, 115, 126, 135

Huntington, Samuel 39

Hussein, Saddam 31, 80

IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa) 98–9

identity 41, 51, 58–9, 61–2, 66, 72–6, 80, 84, 87–8, 106, 109

ideology 38–41, 46, 51, 82, 104, 109, 124, 134

ILO (International Labour Organization) 118

imagined systems 5, 7, 27–8, 75, 131

imported states 29

inclusion 32–3

individual security 66–7

inequality 32–3, 37, 63, 80, 134

institutionalization 44, 73, 94–5

integration 6–9, 12, 29, 48, 49, 76, 84

diplomacy 126, 127

global integration 60–61, 74, 96

regional constructions 87, 88, 89–90, 91–3, 95–6, 97, 98–9

war 108, 110, 114

interdependence 24, 32, 33–6, 46, 65, 74, 77–8, 132, 133

regional constructions 87, 89, 96, 97–8, 99

international campaigns 57

“international chaos”, illusion of 7–8, 34, 41, 132, 135

international law 18, 21, 36, 74, 75, 83, 87–8, 111

diplomacy 117, 119, 121, 127

International Red Cross 59

international violence 7, 9, 15, 22, 81, 132

diplomacy 122, 127, 129

inter-social relations, 63–4, 68

territorialization and deterritorialization 46, 52–3

violence entrepreneurs 31, 39, 46, 53, 63, 64, 68, 81, 107–10, 113, 122

war 103, 106–8, 110–11

inter-social relations 6, 8, 32, 56, 71, 109, 120

counter-socialization 60, 61–2

global integration 60–61

mobilization 57, 60, 62, 68

new social actors 56–62

new social issues 62–7

NGOs 57, 58, 59–60, 61, 67

regional constructions 90, 92, 95

social dynamics 67–9

socialization of international arena 56, 57, 60–62

invention of IR 1, 11–12

competition 12–13, 14, 15, 16–17, 18, 20, 22, 24

empires 12–14, 16, 17, 19

fragmented political systems 14–17

otherness 11, 12–17

power 12–13, 17, 18, 19, 20–21, 23, 24

war 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20–23

Westphalian system see Westphalian system

ISI (international social integration) 114, 126, 127

Islam 61–2

Kadhafi, Mu’ammar 91

Kaldor, Mary 105

Kandhlawi, Muhammad Ilyas 62

Keating, Michael 93

Kennedy, John F. 123

Kenyatta, Jomo 78

Keohane, Robert 23–4

Klein, Jacques-Paul 114

land grabbing 47–8

League of Nations 23, 118–19

Lebensraum 45

Leviathan 21

liberalism/neo-liberalism 1, 19, 23, 76, 96, 119

Machiavelli, Nicolo 21

Mackinder, Halford John 45

Mahan, Alfred 45

Mandela, Nelson 80

“market-state” 76

MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) 128

mediation 18, 59, 78, 101, 105, 112, 113–14

messianic empires 12, 17

micro-strategies 58–9, 133

military resources 9

“minilateralism” 29, 133

Mitrany, David 89

mobility 32, 35, 36–7, 46, 50, 89

mobilization 4, 20, 78, 81, 84, 134

after the “great transformation” 28, 31, 39

diplomacy 117–18, 119, 123–4

inter-social relations 57, 60, 61, 62, 68

regional constructions 89, 94

territorialization and deterritorialization 47, 52, 54

war 103–4, 108, 113, 114

Morgenthau, Hans 3, 8, 20

multilateralism 23, 35, 74, 99, 133, 135

diplomacy 118, 119, 127–9

war 113, 114, 115

Münkler, Herfried 105

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 91, 98

nationalism 3, 28, 80, 84, 104–5, 113

neo-nationalism 93–4, 95–6, 98, 129

nation-building 64, 106

nation-states 50–51, 64, 71, 77, 119

after the “great transformation” 27–30, 37

invention of IR 11, 13–14, 17, 24

regional constructions 91–2, 94, 96

war 102, 107, 114

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 3, 40, 80, 81–2

natural economic territories (NET) 90, 92

negotiation 15, 19, 21–2, 31, 44, 64, 66, 68, 74, 75, 83

diplomacy 117–18, 119, 120–23

war 104, 107, 109

NGOs (non-governmental organizations) 35, 53, 111

diplomacy 120, 123, 126, 128

inter-social relations 57, 58, 59–60, 61, 67

NICs (new international conflicts) 4, 7, 101, 102, 103, 105–9, 110–13, 114, 115, 117, 122

non-state actors 7, 15, 20, 46, 47, 71, 78, 83, 95, 97, 106, 114, 134

after the “great transformation” 31, 35, 39–41

diplomacy 119, 120–22, 126–7, 128

inter-social relations 56–62, 64

see also NGOs

Nuer segmented system 15

Nye, Joseph 23–4

OAS (Organization of American States) 88

OAU (Organization of African Unity) 88, 89, 91

Obama, Barack 82, 131

otherness 11, 12–17

peace 4, 29, 31, 33, 37, 63, 101, 102, 107, 110, 113, 114, 118, 119, 122, 128, 133, 134

peace-making 112–15

polarity, polarization 15, 21, 37, 80, 133, 134

polyarchies 134

populism 73, 85, 93, 96, 123

post-bipolar systems 3, 38, 95, 132, 133, 134–5

post-colonialism 24, 29, 30–31, 32, 41, 47, 72–3, 75, 79, 112

power 6, 8

after the “great transformation” 30–31, 33–5

balance of see balance of power

competition see power competition

great powers 21, 24, 109, 134

hegemony 9–10, 71–2, 76, 80, 82, 91–2, 112, 123–5, 131–2, 134

historical sociology of IR 2–3, 4–5

invention of IR 12–13, 17, 18, 19, 20–21, 23, 24

middle powers 80, 98, 131, 132, 135

powerlessness of power 1, 9, 76–83

soft power 60, 82, 123

structure of 133, 134

superpower 1, 4, 34, 38, 71, 82, 123, 131, 133

war 101, 103–4, 105–6, 109, 111–13, 114–15

power competition 6, 9, 18, 20, 63, 77, 79, 98, 125–6

after the “great transformation” 30–31, 33, 40

territorialization and deterritorialization 45, 47, 53

war 101, 105–6, 109, 112

public opinion 5, 33, 51–2, 56, 79, 84, 104

diplomacy 118, 120, 122–4, 127, 128

“quasi-state” 75–6

Ratzel, Friedrich 45

real systems 5, 7, 27–8

realism 1, 7, 8, 44, 45, 58, 74, 84, 112, 119, 135

after the “great transformation” 27, 34, 37–8

invention of IR 18–20, 23–4

neo-realism 18, 24, 37, 45

regional constructions 88, 89, 90, 91, 93

regional constructions 6, 13–15, 32, 74, 84, 87–8, 132

globalization 87, 88, 92, 95, 97

hybrid origins of 88–90

integration 87, 88, 89–90, 91–3, 95–6, 97, 98–9

new regionalism 93–6

realism 88, 89, 90, 91, 93

sharing 97–9

sovereignty 87, 88–90, 92, 94–5, 96–8

stake-holding 96–7

Westphalian system 87, 88, 89, 92, 93–6, 98

war 106–7, 114

Renaissance 11, 15, 17, 32, 43, 71

rentier states 75

rhizomatic relations 51, 53

Roman Empire 12, 19, 43

Roosevelt, Franklin D. 119

Rosecrance, Richard 53

Rosenau, James 53, 71

Ruggie, John 23–4

Russia (USSR) 12, 60, 120, 124, 133

depolarization 37, 38, 40

powerlessness of state power 79, 80–81, 82

territorialization and deterritorialization 45, 47, 48

Sack, Robert 52

Salafi networks 40, 41, 50, 67, 81

Sant Egidio religious community 59, 114

Sarkozy, Nicolas 67

Scalapino, Robert 92

Schmitt, Carl 15, 23, 39, 40, 49, 104

security 7, 22, 34, 35, 39, 45, 59, 63, 64, 65, 66, 78, 81, 103, 113, 114, 118, 122, 126, 128, 133

self-centered empires 12, 13

Senghor, Leopold Sedar 88

SEZ (Special Economic Zones) 89

sharing 97–9

Sharp, Robert 117, 121

social bonds 64, 94, 106

social precariousness 63–4, 103, 108, 110, 127

social routes 125–7

socialism 38, 124

socialization of international arena 6, 14, 36, 52, 128, 131

counter-socialization 60, 61–2, 73, 113

inter-social relations 56, 57, 60–62

war 110, 111, 113, 115

soft power 60, 82, 123

solidarity 50, 57, 65, 96, 98–9, 106

sovereignty 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 131, 132, 133, 134

decolonization 28–9, 30

diplomacy 117–18, 119, 121, 127, 128, 129

globalization 32–7, 41, 74

invention of IR 13, 17–18, 19–23, 24

regional constructions 87, 88–90, 92, 94–5, 96–8

state 73–6, 80, 83

territorialization and deterritorialization 43, 46, 47, 49–50, 53, 54

war 102, 108, 114

stake-holding 96–7

state 6–8, 71–2

city states 14, 15–17

failed states 15, 29–30, 38, 51, 75, 82, 105–6

as gladiator 22, 24, 38, 53, 58, 71, 77, 82, 101, 114

globalization 71, 72, 74, 76, 79–80, 82, 83–4

historical sociology of IR 4

identity of 72–6

powerlessness of state power 76–83

reconfiguration of 83–4

resilience of 83–4

sovereignty see sovereignty

“virtual states” 16, 53, 75

Westphalian system 71–2, 73, 75–7, 79–80, 81, 83–4

see also nation-states

Strange, Susan 48

structure of power 133, 134

Sun Tzu 14

superpower 1, 4, 34, 38, 71, 82, 123, 131, 133

Tall, Hâjj Omar 61

technology 5, 33, 37, 77

territorialization and deterritorialization 43, 46, 49, 51–4

tectonic systems 69

territorialization 6, 8, 13, 43, 47, 74–5

delimitation of territory 17, 43–4, 50, 74

geopolitics 44–6, 48–9

impact of modern technology 43, 46, 49, 51–4

invention of international politics 43–6

invention of IR 13, 19–20

new status for territories 47–9

sovereignty 43, 46, 47, 49–50, 53, 54

Westphalian system 43, 49–54

see also deterritorialization

The Rise of the Virtual State 53

The Six Books of the Commonwealth 21

Thirty Years War (1618–1648) 11

Thucydides 9–10

tianxia 13–14

Tilly, Charles 18, 23, 76

Tonnies, Ferdinand 96

transcultural conception systems 3, 28

transnational relations 1, 16, 24, 76, 84

after the “great transformation” 35, 37, 40–41

diplomacy 120, 123

inter-social relations 56–8, 61–2, 67

regional constructions 89, 91–3

territorialization and deterritorialization 44–5, 49–50, 53–4

trans-regionalism 98–9

tribal systems 14–15

Trump, Donald 82, 84, 123, 131

UN (United Nations) 1, 28, 30, 112–13, 114, 115, 119, 127–8, 129

UNCTAD (UN Conference on Trade and Development) 29

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) 29, 63, 64, 108

UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund) 110

unipolarity 24, 38, 80

USA 32

depolarization 37, 38, 39–40

diplomacy 118–19, 122, 124, 125

inter-social relations 57, 58, 60

powerlessness of state power 79, 80–82

regional constructions 88, 91, 98

USSR see Russia

variables

explained 6, 7, 56, 71, 87, 101, 117

intermediate 6, 43

Vienna Congress (1815) 1, 23, 97, 115, 118

violence entrepreneurs 31, 39, 46, 53, 63, 64, 68, 81, 107–10, 113, 122

“virtual states” 16, 53, 75

Waltz, Kenneth 37, 38

war 101–2, 132, 135

after the “great transformation” 29–31, 38–40

conflict-solving 111–15

inter-social relations 59–60, 64, 68–9

invention of IR 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20–23

mediation 59, 101, 105, 112, 113–14

new international conflicts 4, 7, 101, 102, 103, 105–9, 110–13, 114, 115, 117, 122

power 101, 103–4, 105–6, 109, 111–13, 114–15

regional constructions 88–9

requiem for old wars 102–5

security 103, 108, 113–14

territorialization and deterritorialization 44–8, 49–50, 53, 54

Westphalian system 101–3, 105–6, 107, 110–11, 112, 114–15, 132

“war societies” 110–11, 120

warlords 15, 30, 31, 39, 51, 64, 107, 109–10

weakness politics 1, 6, 30, 78, 105–6

Weber, Max 6, 8–9, 44, 71, 77, 89

Westphalian Peace (1648) 11, 18, 19, 21–2, 89

Westphalian system

concepts 19–21

defining 5–6, 11

diplomacy 117, 118, 123, 128–9

empires 12–13, 14

established 9, 17–18

“great transformation” see great transformation

history of IR theories 3, 4, 21–4

international conservatism 2

polarization 134

pre-Westphalian systems 14–15, 49

real and imagined systems 5

regional constructions 87, 88, 89, 92, 93–6, 98

states 71–2, 73, 75–7, 79–80, 81, 83–4

territorialization and deterritorialization 43, 49–54

war 101–3, 105–6, 107, 110–11, 112, 114–15, 132

Wilson, Woodrow 23, 118, 122

Wolfers, Arnold 74

WTO (World Trade Organization) 57

Wu Wei 14

Xi Jinping 4