Chapter 1 is an outline of the study - from motivation to results. Here I lay out key research issues of interest to any scholar of entrepreneurship and explain why and how the expertise perspective from cognitive science would be useful. In a nutshell, I created a 17 page problem set of 10 typical decisions in a startup firm and had a reasonably representative sample of 27 expert entrepreneurs think aloud continuously as they solved the problems. The think-aloud protocols were collected on tape and the transcriptions of the tape formed the primary data for the study. I end the chapter with a summary of major findings.