A Brief Alternative History
The document produced for the first OECD ministerial conference on science in 1963 stated: “the relationship between a national policy for economic development and a national policy for scientific research and development is one of the essential subjects for study” (OECD, 1963b: 52). To the OECD, what is needed is a dialogue between those responsible for economic policy and those responsible for science policy (pp. 69–73). Science policy is not integrated. As another OECD document of the same year put it: “there is a great need for studies of the several fields and ways in which science and policy interact, and there is a need above all for a continuing and intimate working relationship between officials responsible for science policy and other policy makers” (OECD, 1963a: 26–7). “National policies in other fields must take account of the achievements and expectations of science and technology”: economic policy, social policy, military policy, foreign policy, aid policy (p. 26).
One of the OECD studies that most explicitly carried a system approach was The Research System, published in three volumes between 1972 and 1974 under the direction of Jean-Jacques Salomon.1 The study framed the central issue of the system approach in terms of a dichotomy between two periods, as had a previous report (the Piganiol Report: OECD, 1963a: 18): the policy for science period as the expansion of research per se, versus the science for policy period where “developing national research potential [is] generally regarded as synonymous with national innovation...
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