A Dictionary of Environmental Economics, Science, and Policy
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A Dictionary of Environmental Economics, Science, and Policy

R. Quentin Grafton, Linwood H. Pendleton and Harry W. Nelson

This comprehensive Dictionary is an important reference tool for all those interested in environmental science and environmental studies. Written in a clear and accessible style, the dictionary includes over three thousand up-to-date entries, all accompanied by a detailed yet straightforward definition covering all aspects of the subject.
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R. Quentin Grafton, Linwood H. Pendleton and Harry W. Nelson


abatement. A method or process that controls or reduces discharges and emissions of pollutants. ability-to-pay principle. The notion that publicly provided goods and services should be financed on the basis of what people are able to pay. See willingness to pay. abiotic factors. Non-living components of the natural environment. absolute advantage. The notion that an individual, f or country is m able to produce more of or a better product using identical quantities of inputs than others. See comparative advantage (theory o j . absolute zero. The lowest possible temperature defined as 0" Kelvin or - 273°C. absorption. The process whereby a substance is assimilated and retained by another. absorptive capacity. The maximum amount that can be absorbed by a substance, such as the absorptive capacity of soil for water. abundance. A measure of the number of individuals, or groups of individuals, in a given population. abyssal. A zone under the ocean where there is no sunlight and that is commonly defined as being deeper than 2000 meters. acceleration principle. A hypothesis that investment varies with the rate of change in output in an economy. access right. A property right that entitles the holder of the right access or entry to a natural resource or environmental asset, such as an entry permit to a National Park. acclimatization. The physiological and behavioral, but not genetic, adaptations of flora and fauna due to changes in the environment. See adaptation. 1 2 acidic acidic. A substance which has a low pH value. SeepH....

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