A Dictionary of Environmental Economics, Science, and Policy
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A Dictionary of Environmental Economics, Science, and Policy

R. Quentin Grafton, Linwood H. Pendleton and Harry W. Nelson

This comprehensive Dictionary is an important reference tool for all those interested in environmental science and environmental studies. Written in a clear and accessible style, the dictionary includes over three thousand up-to-date entries, all accompanied by a detailed yet straightforward definition covering all aspects of the subject.
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R. Quentin Grafton, Linwood H. Pendleton and Harry W. Nelson


back-end charge. A charge that must be paid for the disposal of waste. backstop resource. A natural resource that is currently too expensive to be used but, should the price of its substitutes rise sufficiently, would become economically efficient to exploit. See backstop technology. backstop technology. A technology that is available but is currently inefficient to use at existing prices. For example, the technology exists to convert coal to petroleum and was, in fact, used during World War 11. However, at current prices of oil, it is uneconomic to use the technology. backward bending supply. Used to describe circumstances under which the expected supply of a good or service falls as the price paid for the good or service increases beyond a certain point. Distinguished from normal supply curves in which the quantity supplied increases (or at least does not decrease) as the price increases. bacteria. A group of one-celled organisms capable of multiplying by forming spores or by fission and which lack a distinct nucleus surrounded by a membrane. bacteriaphage. A type of virus that feeds on bacteria. bag limits. Limits imposed on hunters in terms of how many animals they are allowed to catch or kill. Bag limits are used as a control on the total level of exploitation of a population and are frequently used in recreational fisheries. bag-tag. A system for the disposal of household waste in which only bags that are appropriately tagged are disposed. In some municipalities, households receive a fixed number of tags...

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