CJplants. Plants, such as wheat and beans, that produce three carbon 4 molecules with photosynthesis. See C plants. Cqplants. Plants, such as corn, that produce four carbon molecules with photosynthesis and are adapted to higher temperatures and greater sunlight. The productivity of C4 plants can be significantly enhanced with higher levels of carbon dioxide. See C3plants. cadmium. A widely used but toxic metal that is a known carcinogen. caesium 137. A radioactive isotope of caesium with a half-life of 30 years. Trace amounts of caesium 137 were deposited over most parts of northern Europe following the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. See Chernobyl. Cairns Group. A group of 18 countries, formed in Australia in 1986, organized to encourage agricultural exports. calcrete. A layer or boundary in the soil formed by calcium carbonate, calculus of variations. An approach to solving dynamic problems in continuous time. See Euler 's Equation. calorie. A measure of energy defined as the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water fiom 15.5' to 16.5' C. Cambrian. present. A period on the earth 570 to 505 million years before the Camelford incident. The accidental spillage of aluminum sulphate into the drinking water of the 20,000 residents in Camelford, England in 1989. The residents suffered a number of serious health complaints including symptoms of joint and muscle pain and memory loss. campylobacterjejuni. A widespread pathogen that is the most common cause of acute infectious diarrhea in developed countries. Infections fiom the bacteria can be fatal...
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