A Dictionary of Environmental Economics, Science, and Policy
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A Dictionary of Environmental Economics, Science, and Policy

R. Quentin Grafton, Linwood H. Pendleton and Harry W. Nelson

This comprehensive Dictionary is an important reference tool for all those interested in environmental science and environmental studies. Written in a clear and accessible style, the dictionary includes over three thousand up-to-date entries, all accompanied by a detailed yet straightforward definition covering all aspects of the subject.
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R. Quentin Grafton, Linwood H. Pendleton and Harry W. Nelson


daisyworld. A hypothetical world described by James Lovelock to illustrate the Gaia hypothesis and how the earth can be an effective selfregulating environment for plants and animals. In the daisyworld, the temperature can be maintained between critically low and critically high levels, despite significant changes in solar radiation. Thus, by changes in the composition of black daisies (which absorb more solar radiation and do best in colder temperatures) and white daisies (which absorb less solar radiation and do best in warmer temperatures), daisyworld’s temperature remains in the range that can maintain life. See Gaia hypothesis. FURTHER READING Lovelock (1 990) and Lovelock (2000). damage function. A function that relates the level of emissions or discharges to the associated environmental or social costs. dark green technologies. Processes that are used to directly address pollution; for example, technologies used to remove surface oil on water after an oil spill. See light green technologies. Darwinian evolution. Named after Charles Darwin and refers to the gradual evolution of species due to natural selection whereby individuals with characteristics that do not favor reproductive success tend to die out over time. See natural selection. FURTHER READING Darwin (1 859), Gould (1989) and Stiling (1992). Darwinian fitness. Named after Charles Darwin and also known as adaptive value. It refers to the relative ability of an individual, with a given genotype, to pass on its genes to future generations. See Darwinian evolution. data fouling. Process by which unrepresentative or misleading data is used in decision making because respondents...

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