G7/G8. G7 is a grouping of the world’s largest industrial economies consisting of the USA, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Canada. The G8 includes the G7 countries plus Russia. G77 countries. Grouping of developing countries. Gaia hypothesis. Idea popularized by James Lovelock, an atmospheric scientist, who hypothesized that the earth could be viewed as a single organism where its constituent elements coexist in symbiosis. Thus animals and plants collectively help to manage a world, through positive and negative feedbacks, and ensure the planet maintains an equilibrium that is desirable for all life. See daisyworld. FURTHER READING Lovelock (2000). gallery forest. Tropical forests that grow at high densities and tend to follow riverine courses. See also riparian. gambler’s fallacy. A belief that because an event has not occurred for a long period of time then it is more likely to occur in the near future. game ranching. Raising wildlife under controlled conditions within pens. game theory. An area of study and research that deals with the strategic interactions of (utility) maximizing agents under specified sets of constraints. game tree. Also known as extensive form of a game, this is a structure that provides information about a game where the nodes represent potential moves in the game and the edges or lines or branches that move from the nodes represent the possible strategies or actions available at a particular node. Each node is labeled for the player making the move or, if the node has no edges or branches,...
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