MAB. See Man and the Biosphere. macroeconomics. The study of business cycles, economic growth and broad or large-scale economic problems using measures of economic aggregates and gross economic activity. For example, the study of unemployment is a branch of macroeconomics. See microeconomics. “mad cow” disease. See bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). magma. Molten material found beneath the earth’s surface. Magnuson-Stevenson Act. A US federal act ratified in 1976 but changed in 1990, and renamed in 1996, that provides guidelines to fishery management councils. Seefishery managementpfans. malaria. A disease common in most tropical areas that is caused by several different parasites and is spread by the bite of certain types of mosquitoes. Malaria kills and debilitates millions of people, and control measures are often limited to the spraying of insecticides to reduce mosquito populations. malnutrition. A generic term for a diet that lacks specific and necessary nutrients, such as protein. Millions of people in developing countries suffer from malnutrition, and it is a contributing factor to morbidity and mortality. Malthusian. Term used to describe ideas or models that make pessimistic predictions about fbture resource availability. Named after the Rev. Thomas Malthus, whose eighteenth-centuryessay on population predicted that population growth would shortly be checked by food limits and resource shortages. See cornucopian. mammal. Class of animals (including humans) that have several distinguishing characteristics, including mammary glands used for feeding young. Man and the Biosphere (MAB). An interdisciplinary research and training program directed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to...
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