A Dictionary of Environmental Economics, Science, and Policy
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A Dictionary of Environmental Economics, Science, and Policy

R. Quentin Grafton, Linwood H. Pendleton and Harry W. Nelson

This comprehensive Dictionary is an important reference tool for all those interested in environmental science and environmental studies. Written in a clear and accessible style, the dictionary includes over three thousand up-to-date entries, all accompanied by a detailed yet straightforward definition covering all aspects of the subject.
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R. Quentin Grafton, Linwood H. Pendleton and Harry W. Nelson


NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement. Nashequilibrium. A concept in game theory that describes a game outcome where an individual participant has no reason to change his or her own strategy, given the strategy chosen by all the other participants. natality rate. See birth rate. national action plan (NAP). A country’s stated objectives for pollution control, and the policies designed to meet those goals. national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). US federal standards that set the levels of legally permitted concentrations of defined pollutants in a defined volume of air. national debt. The cumulative borrowing by a government. Debts in excess of 60 percent of the gross domestic product are considered to be a potential economic problem. national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). US standards for point sources of emissions of potentially hazardous pollutants. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Legislation passed in the USA in 1970 that created both the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the requirement for federal agencies to evaluate the potential impact from agency actions or proposed legislation on the environment through an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), followed by an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), if there is found to be an impact. The formal preparation and incorporation of environmental assessments into decision-making has subsequently been adopted by a number of countries. FURTHER READING Callan and Thomas (2000). national forests. Forestlands held by the government for the benefit of the country as a whole. In the USA, national forest-lands refer to those lands managed by...

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