Paascheindex. A commonly used index that uses weights from the current period. For example, a Paasche price index may be defmed as plql/ poql where q1 is the quantity consumed in the current period, po is the price of the good in the base period and p1is the price of the good in the current period. See Laspeyres index. PAC. Acronym for pollution abatement and control. Paleocene. ago. Geological epoch of time from 66.4 to 57.8 million years paleoclimatology. The study of past climates through the use of physical samples, such as ice cores. paleoecology. The study of past ecological systems using the fossil record and associated sedimentary strata. Paleozoic. Geological era from almost 570 million years to 245 million years ago. pampas. Grassland region that predominates in Argentina. panchayat forests. Forests in the Himalayas which are managed by statutory village councils. In Nepal, panchayat forests are oflen managed by several villages and are managed in the interest of the village communities. FURTHER READING Arnold and Campbell (1 986). pandemic. An epidemic that affects various locations simultaneously. The 1919 “Spanish Flu” pandemic simultaneously appeared at various places in the world and was responsible for up to 20 million deaths. panel data. Data for which observations are available over time, and for individual units of observation. See cross-sectional data and timeseries data. Pangaea. The name given to a supercontinent that existed from 280 to 180 million years ago. 207 208 panspermia panspermia. The hypothesis that life in the universe can be...
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