taiga. See boreal forest. tailings. Crushed waste material and rock left from mining. Without some form of remediation tailings can often have an adverse effect on the environment. takings. 1. Under the Endangered Species Act in the USA, a taking is defined as the killing, harming, or harassment of an endangered species. 2. A governmental appropriation of property rights, either in part or complete, such as the restrictions placed upon the allowable uses of land at a particular site. See incidental taking. tall stacks. Large stacks up to several hundreds of meters high that are used to disperse air pollution and to minimize its impact on the local area. Tall stacks often result in greater spatial dispersion of the pollution. tannins. Toxic substance found in plants that renders them bitter or astringent. targeted species. A preferred species that is actively sought in the process of harvesting or capture. See bycatch. tariff. A tax imposed on imports that is often based as a percentage of the import price. tar sands. Name given to sand deposits that contain heavy oil. Tar sands represent a huge reserve of hydrocarbons equivalent to 400 billion barrels of oil. tax. See Pigouvian tax. tax incidence. Term for the distribution of the burden of a tax such that those who initially pay the tax (such as a wholesaler with a wholesale tax) are not necessarily the persons who end up paying for the tax (consumers) after price adjustments. taxonomy. See systematics. Taylorism. Term describing production processes in...
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