Edited by David Pearce
Chapter 9: Quantifying the Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy: The Case of Swedish Wind Power
Kristina Ek INTRODUCTION An important element of energy policies in Sweden and the European Union is to promote the commercialization of renewable energy sources in the power sector. The recent wave of liberalization and deregulations of electricity markets may in itself beneﬁt renewable energy as it allows for product differentiation; customers can choose among producers of electricity with different generation portfolios. If consumers are willing to pay a premium for electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind power, the amount of renewable electricity capacity can be expected to increase. Swedish consumers have had the opportunity to buy ‘green’ electricity since 1996, at the time when the electricity market was deregulated and the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation initiated a system for the labelling of ‘green’ electricity. The energy sources considered ‘green’ according to this scheme are existing hydropower, solar power, biomass power and wind power. All the major electricity distributors in Sweden offer ‘green’ electricity to their consumers, and some of them also offer electricity generated exclusively from wind.1 So far, wind power represents a small share of total electricity production in Sweden. In 2000 0.4 TWh wind power was generated, corresponding to about 0.3 per cent of total power generation in the country (Swedish National Energy Administration, 2001a). However, the political intention is to increase wind power production to 10 TWh by 2015 (Prop. 2001/02:143). Sundqvist (2002) summarizes and compares the results of more than 40 different electricity externality studies, and his results indicate that wind...
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