A Handbook of Environmental Management
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A Handbook of Environmental Management

Edited by Jon C. Lovett and David G. Ockwell

A Handbook of Environmental Management presents a range of case studies that demonstrate the complementary application of different social science techniques in combination with ecology-based management thinking to the natural environment. This eloquent and unique Handbook provides a broad overview, complemented by specific case studies and techniques that are used in environmental management from the local level to international environmental regimes.
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Chapter 3: Integrated Conservation and Development Projects: A Positive Role for Forest Conservation in Tropical Africa?

Neil Burgess, David Thomas, Shakim Mhagama, Thomas Lehmberg, Jenny Springer and Jonathan Barnard


1 Neil Burgess, David Thomas, Shakim Mhagama, Thomas Lehmberg, Jenny Springer and Jonathan Barnard Background A debate has been going on for a number of years on the best ways to achieve conservation in Africa (and elsewhere). Two elements of the debate involve those espousing ‘fortress conservation’ and those promoting ‘people-focused conservation’. In some circles this debate has become highly polarized, with a considerable divide on the best ways to achieve conservation opening between biologists (Spinage, 1996, 1998; Kramer et al., 1997; Oates, 1999; Attwell and Cotterill, 2000; Bruner et al., 2000) and social scientists (Grove, 1995; Neumann, 1996, 1998; Borrini-Feyerabend and Buchan, 1997; Ghimire and Pimbert, 1997; Hackel, 1999; Leach et al., 2002). However, for those involved with implementing conservation projects on the ground in the developing world, the polarized views often represent impractical extremes. Moreover, for the people living in the rural areas of developing countries, the divide between ‘development’ and ‘conservation’ is often quite artificial. The third element of the debate involves attempts to merge human development and wildlife conservation issues within a single integrated programme, ideally where all sides benefit, the basis of Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs). These kinds of projects can be considered to fall between ‘fortress conservation’ and ‘sustainable resource use for rural development’. The ICDP has become one of the dominant approaches to field implementation of conservation in the developing world over the past 30 years. In this chapter we look at where ICDPs have come from, what their successes and...

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