Edited by Henk Folmer, H. Landis Gabel, Shelby Gerking and Adam Rose
Chapter 8: Poverty, environment and development
8. Poverty, environment and development Anil Markandya 1 INTRODUCTION The literature on the nexus between poverty, environment and development is enormous. Important recent surveys include Dasgupta and Mäler (1994), Dasgupta (1996) and Duraippah (1996). In spite of these, however, even the most diligent scholar could spend several years reading the various papers, reports, books and so on that touch on these issues, and still not cover everything. The present author, while conscientious and painstaking, knows that there are bound to be gaps in what has been undertaken as background research for this chapter. A fairly large sample of the literature reveals, however, that, in terms of drawing out the main issues and in deﬁning the research challenges, what has been reviewed provides a reasonable background. There should be few surprises in terms of major ﬁndings or ‘stylized facts’ in what has been omitted from the references at the end of this chapter. There are several questions that one can sensibly ask (and that have been asked) about the linkages between the three themes of this chapter. These are summarized in Table 8.1 below and the chapter is organized around the six questions posed there. They relate to a wide range of phenomena and involve quite different ways of looking at the world. Some are comparisons of the same region or community at two different points in time. Some look at how communities evolve over time, and some compare different communities or nations at the same, or different, points...
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