A Study of Strategic Themes in the Internationalisation of Japanese Industry
Chapter 19: Internationalisation of Electrical and Electronic Machinery
OVERVIEW The electrical and electronics sector is one of the largest manufacturing sectors in Japan and covers a diverse array of products such as industrial electrical apparatus, household electric appliances, electronic equipment and information and communications technology (ICT) equipment and miscellaneous electrical machinery equipment and supplies. Major ﬁrms in this sector such as Matsushita, Toshiba and Sony have become wellknown multinationals with production and sales aﬃliates around the world. Smaller electrical and electronics manufacturers have developed global operations, often as part of a supply chain for larger producers. Production of less technologically advanced products and components has increasingly been outsourced overseas, especially to aﬃliates in East Asia. Japanese electrical and electronics companies have used foreign direct investment to both outsource production and to acquire major foreign companies involved in this industry, or providing content for its products. In North America and Europe, sales aﬃliates have predominated although trade friction has encouraged some Japanese ﬁrms to locate production and research facilities in these developed markets. By 2003, the industry had established almost 2,500 overseas aﬃliates across the world, with over 70 per cent of production aﬃliates located in East Asia. Since the late 1980s, over $US80 billion in direct electrical and electronics investment has been directed oﬀshore to found either overseas supply chains or a wholesale and retail distribution network for products of this central Japanese industry sector. Investment has also been directed towards mergers and acquisitions of foreign electronics and related companies. Well...
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