37 possible shortages will rise and fall as conditions change in each country. At any point in time countries are in different stages of the business cycle but indicators used for each occupation will reflect these differences. In previous work, Cohen ( 1995) used seven indicators to measure labour shortages in the United States. The other three indicators used in his work included replacement demand for labour, occupational employment forecasts and immigrants admitted in jobs for which United States workers could not be found.' Replacement demand is a measure of how many workers are hired to replace workers that leave the occupation. These indicators could not be replicated in other countries. By comparing the number of admitted workers to the size of the labour force in each occupation the immigration indicator was developed for the United States. More recently Cohen and Zaidi (1998) developed shortage indicators for the three North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) countries, and also presented preliminary results for five countries (Cohen and Zaidi, 2000). Few countries collect data on vacancies. The United Kingdom collects data on job vacancies by occupation and the United States is planning to collect this type of data in the future. Some local United States state government agencies such as the Minnesota Department of Economic Security (2000) collect job vacancy data. While job vacancy data can be a useful measure of shortages of workers, they alone are not enough to determine if a shortage exists. A more complete analysis of labour market conditions...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.