Chapter 9: Measuring Utilities in Cost–Utility Analysis
9.1 INTRODUCTION The number of QALYs associated with any health state can be expressed as the product of the number of years T (for time) in that state and the average quality of a year in that state, which will be denoted as U, i.e., QALYsϭU.T. We will (unlike some of the literature) use the term quality interchangeably with utility and value. This chapter is devoted to explaining, comparing and contrasting the three main methods for deriving estimates for U. By a method we mean the type of question asked to a person to extract his / her preferences and the way this gets recorded as a number (usually) between 0 and 1. We will not be referring to alternative statistical estimation techniques as diﬀerent methods. The three methods covered are: the category rating scale (RS), the standard gamble (SG), and the time trade-oﬀ model (TTO). We make comparisons in terms of both theory and practice. Before explaining each method in detail, and then presenting the applications, we cover some background issues. 9.1.1 Measurement Stages In order to measure utilities for a particular study, there are four stages that need to be recognized: 1. The ﬁrst stage involves identifying the relevant health states. For example, in a study of kidney transplants, there were four health outcomes, viz.: kidney transplant, hospital dialysis, home dialysis, and death. The second stage involves providing descriptions of the health states identiﬁed. In order to extract people’s preferences, they need to know what...
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