Studies of Urbanization and Migration in Advanced and Developing Countries
Edited by H. S. Geyer
Chapter 13: The demographic transition and urban development in Turkey
T. Baycan-Levent INTRODUCTION The twentieth century has been a century of major transformations in the world. Since the 1980s the world has seen a transition from industrial to informational societies, from modernism to post-modernism and from nationstates to globalization. All of these have led, on the one hand, to changes in spatial distributions of population and on the other hand, in line with improved means of transportation and advanced communicational and informational systems, have provided for a greater mobility for people. In this sense, the concept of migration has acquired a new meaning. As a result of all this the terms ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ need to be redefined as they have undergone a change in meaning due to modern technological developments and modifications in agricultural production. Undoubtedly, in many parts of the world and particularly in developing countries, there are still a multitude of rural areas where industrialization is still absent or where it is still in its infancy. However, in view of continuously altering conditions, it cannot be stated for certain that such areas are likely to ever attract large-scale industrial and urban development at any meaningful scale. Therefore, it seems necessary to evaluate the process of urbanization and the changes in the distribution of population within the framework of existing transitions. As a developing country, even though the meanings associated with the concepts ‘rural’ and ‘migration’ have remained unaltered in Turkey, the tempo of the change in the two environments has accelerated rapidly over the years. The observed...
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