The Comparative Economics of North American and European Sports
Edited by Carlos Pestana Barros and Muradali Ibrahímo
Chapter 9: Sports policy at regional level: estimating the economic value of amateur sports managers
9. Sports policy at regional level: estimating the economic value of amateur sports managers Carlos Pestana Barros and Jaime Lucas 1. INTRODUCTION The provision to the community of sport, which constitutes an imperfect public good, is made mainly through clubs. These are, for the most part, non-proﬁt oriented organisations, which provide attendance events for individuals as well as participation for professional and non-professional sportsmen and women. Sloane (1971), in asserting that sports managers maximise the utility of winning competitions, proposes the non-proﬁt nature of the sport clubs. This proposition is supported in Europe, where the clubs frequently operate with deﬁcits. In the USA, Quirk and El-Hodiri (1974) consider that sports clubs are proﬁt maximisers, while more recently, Vrooman (2000) posited an intermediate position in which the sports managers maximise both proﬁt and the utility of winning. We observe that, on one hand, proﬁt-oriented organisations are always managed by professionals, while on the other hand, the non-proﬁt-oriented clubs are managed either by professionals or amateurs. In Portugal, a recent development has seen the shares of the three largest professional football clubs listed on the stock market. However, up till now, the remainder of the country’s clubs of all sports have shown no indication of following this trend. The latter clubs are currently managed by amateurs, who usually do not receive any payment for their eﬀorts and who are commonly obliged to fund any occasional deﬁcit. The non-proﬁt nature of these sports...
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