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Chapter 4: National Economies and the Service Society: The Diversity of Models
4 National economies and the service society: the diversity of models Jean Gadrey Introduction A ‘growth regime’ dominated by services became established in some countries earlier than in others. This is particularly true of the USA, a country that has for a long time been thought of as a ‘model’ and which has been the main point of reference for those in Europe seeking to identify the economic policies most likely to encourage the creation of wealth and jobs in services. However fascinating the American model may be, it is not the only one. Other models exist, and they may be more relevant to the search for a European path to the creation of high-quality jobs and services, one that takes greater account of social cohesion. Our analysis leads to the identiﬁcation of three models of national economy and service society: the Anglo-Saxon, Nordic and continental European models. Terminology of this kind is found in the work of other authors who have sought to construct international typologies, notably that of Esping-Andersen in The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1990). Esping-Andersen’s three worlds or ‘regimes’ are denoted as follows: liberal (closest country: United States), corporatist (closest country: Germany) and social-democratic (Sweden, Scandinavian countries). Our typology produces groupings that are, in some cases, close to those of Esping-Andersen. However, the criteria we use are somewhat diﬀerent, since our typology is based not on the characteristics of the welfare state but on the quantitative and qualitative structures of employment in services....
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