Edited by Sandra L. Fielden and Marilyn J. Davidson
P. Sudarsanan Pillai and K.P. Saraswathy Amma Introduction The Women Entrepreneurship Development Programme in India has a fairly long history. This programme has been the result of a series of planned eﬀorts, in the form of policy decisions, economic plans and special assistance schemes undertaken by the Government. The role of entrepreneurs and small businesses in providing immediate and large-scale employment by eﬀective mobilization of capital and skill, which might otherwise remain unutilized, has been well accepted. A number of programmes and projects are being taken up by various agencies for developing entrepreneurship skills and attracting more women to venture into self-employment in small businesses. This chapter presents a discussion on the Plan initiatives by the Government of India, diﬀerent schemes launched by ﬁnancial institutions to women small-business owners, problems faced by women entrepreneurs and also an analysis of the constraints both in the initialization and subsequent operation of small business in the Indian environment. A woman entrepreneur in India has been deﬁned as a conﬁdent, innovative and creative woman, capable of achieving economic independence individually or in collaboration with others, capable of generating employment opportunities for others through initiating, establishing, and running an enterprise by keeping pace with her personal, family and social life (Singh, 1992). The socio-psychological factors that inﬂuence the entrepreneurial performance of women are achievement motivation, job satisfaction, education and occupation of family, etc. The need for achievement has enhanced the spirit of entrepreneurship (Singh and Gupta, 1985). Economic motivation...
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