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Chapter 9: International Entrepreneurship and Internationalization: Common Threads
Lawrence S. Welch Entrepreneurship and international entrepreneurship have come into vogue in recent times, alongside an interest in international new ventures or ‘born globals’ (Andersson, 2000; Madsen and Servais, 1997; McDougall and Oviatt, 2000; Oviatt and McDougall, 1994). In some of this new work, there has been a characterization of research on internationalization, from a process perspective, as being ill-equipped to explain the entrepreneurial strain of international activities, especially when it generates new companies that rapidly move into international operations. For example: ‘Researchers at the intersection of entrepreneurship and internationalization have objected that the process view fails to explain entrepreneurial ﬁrms that go international early in their existence’ (Autio et al. 2000: 909). One component of the critique of the process view, and its supposed inability to explain the role of entrepreneurial activities, is that internationalization researchers often are deemed to have ignored the importance of networks as an explanation for companies’ moves into the international arena (Coviello and Martin, 1999). However, before such views become accepted as a true statement of thinking about internationalization from a process perspective, it is appropriate to go back to the earlier research on, and evolution of, ideas about internationalization, and to consider these in the light of the developing ﬁeld of international entrepreneurship. An important initial question, though, is: what is meant by the term ‘international entrepreneurship’? This has been a concern of writers seeking to deﬁne, and reﬁne, the ﬁeld of international entrepreneurship. McDougall and Oviatt (2000: 903) have de...
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