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Chapter 22: Finnish Perspectives of International Entrepreneurship
22 Finnish perspectives of international entrepreneurship Reijo Luostarinen and Mika Gabrielsson Globalization has become a focus of interest throughout the world.* It is a swearword for some (r)evolutionary communities; it is one of the challenging issues for international organizations; it is also one of the key topics of many national governments; it is an attractive business strategy at the company level; it is a controversial subject for the man in the street; ﬁnally it is a growing area of interest in research and teaching in many business schools and universities. In view of the above, it is understandable that the term ‘globalization’ can be used in diﬀerent contexts and can have many diﬀerent meanings and interpretations. Diﬀerent societies, such as companies, labour unions, universities, economies and cultures, are globalizing. In this chapter the globalization of ﬁrms is under focus. However, even in business, globalization has been studied from diﬀerent angles. An analysis of the globalization of management thoughts and attitudes has brought an interesting classiﬁcation à la Perlmutter (1969): ethnocentric, polycentric, regiocentric and geocentric (global). Studies of the globalization of marketing have resulted in two opposite categories: standardization and diﬀerentiation (Levitt, 1983). ‘Think globally, act locally’ has become one of the major slogans in MNCs, indicating the challenging eﬀort involved in searching for a balance. In addition to this, diﬀerent ﬁrms in diﬀerent countries have globalized at diﬀerent times and in diﬀerent ways. In this chapter the latest globalization...
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