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Edited by Larry Dwyer and Peter Forsyth
Frédéric Dimanche and Dominique Jolly Introduction Business alliances represent a growing trend, particularly in the tourism sector. This chapter explores the nature of these business alliances, the eﬀect of pulling resources together, and the types of beneﬁts expected by the respective partners. After reviewing the existing literature on strategic alliances, the purpose of the chapter is then to use a new typology of alliances that we illustrate in the context of tourism and more speciﬁcally airlines. Two types of inter-ﬁrm alliances are identiﬁed: endogamy and exogamy. Endogamy occurs when partners share related proﬁles, whereas exogamy appears when allies exhibit unrelated proﬁles. The usefulness of this typology is that it enables the researcher to use resource-based approaches (Wernerfelt 1984; Grant 1991; Hamel 1991) so as to suggest a dichotomy between alliances generating opposite results and representing very diﬀerent stakes and risks. For practitioners, this typology allows the distinction between two classes that call for signiﬁcantly diﬀerent managerial approaches. More speciﬁcally, we propose the use of this original alliance typology to cast a new light on the evolution of strategic alliances in the airline sector. Importance of alliances Quantitative evolution For the past few years, observers of the tourism sector would certainly identify agreements between ﬁrms as one of the most signiﬁcant business trends (Archambault 2000). Indeed, the professional press worldwide is replete with examples of mergers, acquisitions, takeovers, alliances, partnerships and other inter-ﬁrm agreements in all...
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