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International Handbook on the Economics of Tourism

Edited by Larry Dwyer and Peter Forsyth

This highly accessible and comprehensive Handbook presents a cutting edge discussion of the state of tourism economics and its likely directions in future research. Leading researchers in the field explore a wide range of topics including: demand and forecasting, supply, transport, taxation and infrastructure, evaluation and application for policy-making. Each chapter includes a discussion of its relevance and importance to the tourism economics literature, an overview of its main contributions and themes, a critical evaluation of existing literature and an outline of issues for further conceptual and applied research.
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Chapter 21: Globalisation

John Fletcher and John Westlake


John Fletcher and John Westlake Introduction Globalisation is not a single phenomenon – rather it is a collection of forces that tend to change the way that the economic, political and cultural worlds operate. Globalisation is a concept that has been brought to the forefront of politics. From the earliest days when subsistence farming and fishing gave way to market systems there has been an incessant growth in the geographical reach of businesses, people and their culture. The process of globalisation has been accelerating throughout the past century and places and people that were once thought to be inaccessible or unreachable at the beginning of the last century are now an attractive component of the tourism industry. Globalisation has been referred to as a process in which the geographical distance between economic factors, producers and consumers becomes a factor of diminishing significance as a result of faster and more efficient forms of travel, communication and finance (Robertson 1992). The concentration of capital has served to reinforce the capability of those involved in driving forward the globalisation process. It can be seen as a beneficial process whereby the most efficient use can be made of scarce resources and homogeneity in supply can be achieved irrespective of location. However, it can also be viewed as a predatory process whereby global forces face local economic factors and producers with unfair competitive advantages. Globalisation can be examined from cultural, political and environmental viewpoints. From a cultural point of view globalisation can...

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