Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Culture The Interaction between Technology, Progress and Economic Growth
The Interaction between Technology, Progress and Economic Growth
Edited by Terrence E. Brown and Jan Ulijn
Chapter 4: Scientometrics and the evaluation of European integration
4. Scientometrics and the evaluation of European integration Koen Frenken and Loet Leydesdorﬀ 1. INTRODUCTION A fascinating facet of the European Union is the multiplicity of meanings that are generated with respect to European integration. Diﬀerent perceptions among Europeans contest the meaning of integration in general and regarding each social subsystem (economy, politics, science, sports, and so on) in particular. It is therefore both surprising and understandable that relatively few attempts have been reported to measure European integration in a formal way. This is surprising because of the importance of the question, but understandable because of the changing and conﬂicting meanings of European integration (Leydesdorﬀ, 1992; Luukkonen, 1998). In this chapter, we elaborate on the topic of European integration in science. We will not deal with questions related to the eﬀects of European integration, but only with the scientometric question of how one can quantitatively indicate integration of the European science system. This research question is in a certain sense a sine qua non for further research. Without indicators of integration, both the determinants and the eﬀects of (European) integration are hard to assess statistically, let alone the question of the eﬀectiveness of European science policies. Admittedly, however, the empiricist approach loses an explicit perspective of multiplicity of local meanings of ‘Europe’. In this respect, our study is intended to facilitate and supplement debates rather than to provide a ﬁnal answer to the questions whether European integration ‘exists’. In this chapter, we ﬁrst discuss the...
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