Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Culture
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Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Culture

The Interaction between Technology, Progress and Economic Growth

Edited by Terrence E. Brown and Jan Ulijn

Any technological advance, innovation or economic growth created by an organization is dependent on how that organization’s culture and environment fosters or inhibits these developments. This process is further complicated by the global nature of economic activity and differences in national cultures due to country-specific histories, experiences, traditions and rules. The distinguished authors in this important new book aim to study the nature of organizational innovation and change by examining the complex interplay between entrepreneurship, innovation and culture.
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Chapter 4: Scientometrics and the evaluation of European integration

Koen Frenken and Loet Leydesdorff

Extract

4. Scientometrics and the evaluation of European integration Koen Frenken and Loet Leydesdorff 1. INTRODUCTION A fascinating facet of the European Union is the multiplicity of meanings that are generated with respect to European integration. Different perceptions among Europeans contest the meaning of integration in general and regarding each social subsystem (economy, politics, science, sports, and so on) in particular. It is therefore both surprising and understandable that relatively few attempts have been reported to measure European integration in a formal way. This is surprising because of the importance of the question, but understandable because of the changing and conflicting meanings of European integration (Leydesdorff, 1992; Luukkonen, 1998). In this chapter, we elaborate on the topic of European integration in science. We will not deal with questions related to the effects of European integration, but only with the scientometric question of how one can quantitatively indicate integration of the European science system. This research question is in a certain sense a sine qua non for further research. Without indicators of integration, both the determinants and the effects of (European) integration are hard to assess statistically, let alone the question of the effectiveness of European science policies. Admittedly, however, the empiricist approach loses an explicit perspective of multiplicity of local meanings of ‘Europe’. In this respect, our study is intended to facilitate and supplement debates rather than to provide a final answer to the questions whether European integration ‘exists’. In this chapter, we first discuss the...

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