Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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Chapter 6: The Non-OECD Countries

William Kingston and Kevin Scally


6. The non-OECD* countries In the ten year period covered by this study 134 countries acquired at least a single USPTO Small Entity patent.1 The previous three chapters have presented the data for 31 of these – the OECD* countries – in some detail. This chapter examines the balance of 103 countries. To facilitate analysis, since for most countries the actual USPTO patent count is negligible, two further groups were created. The first group, Group D, was established using a cut-off point of the total count of Small Entity patents held by the lowest of the OECD* countries, Slovakia. Thus any country in the 103 whose resident inventors acquired 18 Small Entity patents or more was included in Group D. This amounted to 32 countries, and Figure 6.1 below shows the patents per million data for this group. The final group of 71 countries becomes Group E. Over the full ten years of the study, these 71 countries accumulated 365 Small Entity patents, roughly averaging five SE patents per country or one Small Entity patent every two years. A full table for Group E is given as Appendix D. As with previous chapters, it is helpful to see the proportions for each country in Group D where the inventor claimed priority under the Paris Convention (Table 6.1) and to compare them with the equivalent proportions for the OECD* countries. Table 2.1 showed that inventors from the OECD* countries claimed priority in almost 80 per cent of the cases. By contrast, the equivalent...

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