Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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Finland

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Extract

Table FI.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 21 28 45 53 55 42 37 45 19 24 369 Small Firm 32 43 40 46 64 65 63 63 64 57 537 Nonprofit 0 2 1 2 3 2 1 0 1 1 13 Total 53 73 86 101 122 109 101 108 84 82 919 Figure FI.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 150.00% 125.00% 100.00% 75.00% 50.00% 25.00% 0.00% -25.00% 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 126 Finland 127 Table FI.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 46 60 60 67 88 53 47 18 3 % >=1 86.8% 82.2% 69.8% 66.3% 72.1% 48.6% 46.5% 16.7% 3.6% Cited >= 3 27 28 28 25 31 9 4 1 0 % >= 3 50.9% 38.4% 32.6% 24.8% 25.4% 8.3% 4.0% 0.9% 0.0% Total 53 73 86 101 122 109 101 108 84 Table FI.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 9 16 22 18 25 28 25 34 23 21 % Chem. 17.0% 21.9% 25.6% 17.8% 20.5% 25.7% 24.8% 31.5% 27.4% 25.6% Elec. 9 9 11 12 23 9 19 23 19 20 % Elec....

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