Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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Ireland

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Extract

Ireland Table IE.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 11 6 6 10 5 16 20 10 21 14 119 Small Firm 12 6 14 13 21 19 19 24 19 16 163 Nonprofit 0 2 1 1 0 4 7 4 2 2 23 Total 23 14 21 24 26 39 46 38 42 32 305 Figure IE.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 100.00% % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 50.00% 0.00% -50.00% 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 138 Ireland 139 Table IE.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year Cited>=1 % >=1 78.3% 78.6% 85.7% 75.0% 73.1% 59.0% 41.3% 23.7% 4.8% Cited >= 3 15 5 13 9 9 7 3 1 0 % >= 3 65.2% 35.7% 61.9% 37.5% 34.6% 17.9% 6.5% 2.6% 0.0% Total 23 14 21 24 26 39 46 38 42 1994 18 1995 11 1996 18 1997 18 1998 19 1999 23 2000 19 2001 9 2002 2 Table IE.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 4 5 3 7 3 9 6 5 4 7 % Chem. 17.4% 35.7% 14.3% 29.2% 11.5% 23.1% 13.0% 13.2% 9.5% 21.9% Elec. 3 2 7 2 5 6 15 8 16 6 % Elec. 13.0% 14.3% 33.3%...

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