Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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Italy

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Extract

Italy Table IT.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 127 102 108 114 145 104 147 140 124 136 1,247 Small Firm 308 294 294 320 418 403 448 364 362 365 3,576 Nonprofit 6 7 10 14 9 11 12 10 11 13 103 Total 441 403 412 448 572 518 607 514 497 514 4,926 Figure IT.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 40.00% % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 20.00% 0.00% -20.00% 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 142 Italy 143 Table IT.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 362 326 317 316 352 268 217 101 8 % >=1 82.1% 80.9% 76.9% 70.5% 61.5% 51.7% 35.7% 19.6% 1.6% Cited >= 3 207 184 165 145 131 66 38 3 0 % >= 3 46.9% 45.7% 40.0% 32.4% 22.9% 12.7% 6.3% 0.6% 0.0% Total 441 403 412 448 572 518 607 514 497 Table IT.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 80 82 80 110 122 124 117 110 88 93 % Chem. 18.1% 20.3% 19.4% 24.6% 21.3% 23.9% 19.3% 21.4% 17.7% 18.1% Elec. 45 26 40 33 47 29 44 44 42 46 % Elec....

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