Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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Korea, Republic of

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Extract

Table KR.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 68 96 81 80 133 123 149 214 207 226 1,377 Small Firm 25 43 62 79 146 188 205 162 214 262 1,386 Nonprofit 21 49 47 62 90 104 122 177 198 231 1,101 Total 114 188 190 221 369 415 476 553 619 719 3,864 Figure KR.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 500.00% 400.00% 300.00% 200.00% 100.00% 0.00% 94 % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 146 Korea, Republic of 147 Table KR.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 97 147 147 156 257 239 210 125 14 % >=1 85.1% 78.2% 77.4% 70.6% 69.6% 57.6% 44.1% 22.6% 2.3% Cited >= 3 72 87 78 78 113 88 43 14 0 % >= 3 63.2% 46.3% 41.1% 35.3% 30.6% 21.2% 9.0% 2.5% 0.0% Total 114 188 190 221 369 415 476 553 619 Table KR.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 32 66 69 71 109 146 149 171 189 191 % Chem. 28.1% 35.1% 36.3% 32.1% 29.5% 35.2% 31.3% 30.9% 30.5% 26.6% Elec. 12 33 29 54 119 122 113 137...

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