Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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Norway

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Extract

Norway Table NO.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 24 17 30 27 37 35 34 33 28 30 295 Small Firm 20 26 24 22 36 35 49 45 54 48 359 Nonprofit 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 3 Total 44 43 54 49 73 70 84 78 82 80 657 Figure NO.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 100.00% 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% -20.00% 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 156 Norway 157 Table NO.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 33 33 41 34 47 28 31 14 1 % >=1 75.0% 76.7% 75.9% 69.4% 64.4% 40.0% 36.9% 17.9% 1.2% Cited >= 3 20 19 25 14 12 4 7 1 0 % >= 3 45.5% 44.2% 46.3% 28.6% 16.4% 5.7% 8.3% 1.3% 0.0% Total 44 43 54 49 73 70 84 78 82 Table NO.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 9 4 10 8 12 12 17 16 20 16 % Chem. 20.5% 9.3% 18.5% 16.3% 16.4% 17.1% 20.2% 20.5% 24.4% 20.0% Elec. 5 3 4 5 7 11 7 10 10 8 % Elec....

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