Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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Spain

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

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Table ES.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 42 38 31 46 52 52 60 37 51 44 453 Small Firm 42 49 41 44 67 48 49 57 74 52 523 Nonprofit 2 3 6 6 9 7 8 11 14 7 73 Total 86 90 78 96 128 107 117 105 139 103 1,049 Figure ES.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% -20.00% 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 164 Spain 165 Table ES.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 68 65 50 56 74 43 48 27 5 % >=1 79.1% 72.2% 64.1% 58.3% 57.8% 40.2% 41.0% 25.7% 3.6% Cited >= 3 36 31 24 25 31 10 9 4 0 % >= 3 41.9% 34.4% 30.8% 26.0% 24.2% 9.3% 7.7% 3.8% 0.0% Total 86 90 78 96 128 107 117 105 139 Table ES.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 17 19 20 21 30 27 22 28 32 28 % Chem. 19.8% 21.1% 25.6% 21.9% 23.4% 25.2% 18.8% 26.7% 23.0% 27.2% Elec. 8 5 6 12 17 7 14 13 15 11 % Elec. 9.3% 5.6%...

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